Undated*: Independence throughout Africa

Starting with Cameroon (January 1) and ending with Mauritania (November 28), the year 1960 sees 17 African countries, all former European colonies, achieve their independence. Of those countries, 14 become free of French rule. The transitions are not always smooth or peaceful, particularly in the case of Belgian Congo, where United Nations troops would be sent in and a military coup would take place before the year is out. (* More than half of the African changeovers -- 9 -- are in August.)

* Map: @
* Timeline: @
* Summaries: @
* More about Congo crisis: @ and @

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