The '60s at 50


1964: 'The Prospect of Immortality'

Robert C.W. Ettinger's book about the promise of cryonics is published by Doubleday. From the opening chapter:

     Most of now living have a chance for personal, physical immortality.
     This remarkable proposition -- which may soon become a pivot of personal and national life -- is easily understood by joining one established fact to one reasonable assumption.
     The fact: At very low temperatures it is possible, right now, to preserve dead people with essentially no deterioration, indefinitely. (Details and references will be supplied.)
     The assumption: If civilization endures, medical science should eventually be able to repair almost any damage to the human body, including freezing damage and senile debility or other cause of death. (Definite reasons for such optimism will be given.)
     Hence we need only arrange to have our bodies, after we die, stored in suitable freezers against the time when science may be able to help us. No matter what kills us, whether old age or disease, and even if freezing techniques are still crude when we die, sooner or later our friends of the future should be equal to the task of reviving and curing us. This is the essence of the main argument.
     The arrangements will no doubt be handled at first by individuals, then by private companies and perhaps later by the Social Security system.

* Complete text of book: @
* Ettinger biography (from Cryonics Institute): @
* "Robert Ettinger Cryptopreserved" (The Cryonics Society, 2011): @
* "Can 'Deep Freeze' Conquer Death?" (Ettinger, Ebony magazine, January 1966): @
* "The Iceman" (Jill Lepore, The New Yorker, January 25, 2010): @ 


Friday, November 27, 1964: Operation Moneybags

     British soldiers are given LSD as part of research into how the drug might affect their capabilities as well as military operations. From the Imperial War Museum's description of the filmed summary (link: @):
     Introductory title places trial in context of recent research to discover chemical agents able to incapacitate enemy forces but with negligible risk of fatal casualties. ... One Marine in state of distress is comforted by nurse, while others smile and laugh hysterically, one attempting to cut down a tree with his spade, and another climbing the tree. ... After exercise Marines rest in bed in Porton ward ... One very distressed Marine is held by duffel coated doctor and scientist, muttering "I am not going to die."  Cut back to end of the exercise, with Marines departing by truck, before concluding title states that despite promising results of experiment, further research is needed into methods of disseminating drug, the effects of larger doses and establishing economical production techniques. "Despite these and other problems, LSD is regarded in the light of present knowledge as one of the drugs which merits more detailed examination and testing."

* Short clip from film: @
* Excerpt from "Albion Dreaming: A Popular History of LSD in Britain" (Andy Roberts, 2012): @
* House of Commons communications (1995): @
* "Drugged and Duped" (Rob Evans, The Guardian newspaper, March 14, 2002): @
* "Weapons Against the Mind" (Dr. W.M. Hollyhock, New Scientist magazine, April 22, 1965): @ 


Sunday, November 15, 1964: 'Don't trust anyone over 30'

Jack Weinberg, whose arrest on October 1 helped ignite the Free Speech Movement at the University of California Berkeley, is quoted in a San Francisco Chronicle article written by James Benet:

"We have a saying in the movement that you can't trust anyone over 30."

The quote was reprinted by Chronicle columnist Ralph J. Gleason and soon became a slogan of the counterculture. (It was often shortened to "Don't trust anyone over 30.")

In 1970, Weinberg told The Washington Post: "I was being interviewed by this guy, and he was, or seemed to be, saying something that was bothering me. He was probing into the question of weren't there outside adults manipulating us. There was the implication of a 'Communist conspiracy.' That was infuriating, so I said the thing about not trusting anyone over 30 as a kind of taunt. I was trying to tell him there weren't any graybeards manipulating us." (Link to article: @)

Note: While I have not seen the original article in print or online, the source and date comes from Ralph Keyes' book "I Love It When You Talk Retro" (2009). Keyes also writes in "Nice Guys Finish Seventh" (1992): "Twenty-six years later, now long past 30 himself, Weinberg told me that those words just occurred to him on the spot. He thought they were original to him. Calling them a "movement saying" was his way of trying to give the motto more zing. ... Weinberg's generational redlining touched a nerve among over-thirties. It confirmed their worst fears about how they were perceived by their children. When student activists realized how much this motto bugged their elders, many began to chant 'Don't trust anyone over thirty' in earnest. Before long this became the defining slogan of an era when surly youths were seen as rudely elbowing their parents aside. In Weinberg's words, 'The phrase just resonated.' "

     -- Photo of Jack Weinberg by Harvey Richards

* As mentioned in "We Shall Overcome" (Ramparts magazine, April 1965): @
* "Boom! Talking About the Sixties" (Tom Brokaw, 2007, interview with Weinberg begins on page 591): @
* "What Happened at Berkeley" (Saturday Review magazine, January 16, 1965): @
* "Free Speech Movement Press Bibliography" ( @ 


1964: Gentrification

Writing in the book "London: Aspects of Change," British sociologist Ruth Glass coins the term and explains the concept:

     One by one, many of the working class quarters of London have been invaded by the middle classes -- upper and lower. Shabby, modest mews and cottages -- two rooms up and two down -- have been taken over, when their leases have expired, and have become elegant, expensive residences. Larger Victorian houses, downgraded in an earlier or recent periods -- which were used as lodging houses or were otherwise in multiple occupation -- have been upgraded once again. Nowadays, many of these houses are being sub-divided into costly flats or "houselets" (in terms of the new real estate snob jargon). The current social status and value of such dwellings are frequently in inverse relation to their size, and in any case enormously inflated by comparison with previous levels in their neighbourhoods. Once this process of "gentrification" starts in a district, it goes on rapidly until all or most of the original working class occupiers are displaced, and the whole social character of the district is changed.

* Text of Glass' essay (from "The Gentrification Debates: A Reader," edited by Japonica Brown-Saracino, 2013): @
* Glass biography (from Oxford Dictionary of National Biography): @
* "Gentrification" (Oxford Bibliographies): @
* "The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City" (Neil Smith, 2005): @
* "There Goes the 'Hood: Views of Gentrification from the Ground Up" (Lance Freeman, 2006): @
* "Gentrification" (Loretta Lees, Tom Slater and Elvin Wyly, 2008): @
* "As 'Gentrification' Turns 50, Tracing Its Nebulous History" (, 2014): @


Tuesday, November 3, 1964: Pay television

Californians have voted to outlaw pay television and, in the process, dealt a crippling blow to the ambitious firm that hoped to pioneer the medium across the nation.
     Sylvester L. (Pat) Weaver, president of Subscription Television, Inc., now operating in Los Angeles and San Francisco, declined comment until more votes are counted.
     But a spokesman for the firm said the defeat, by a better than 2 to 1 margin, will be appealed in the courts.
     "You can't vote down free enterprise," said the spokesman. "It's patently unconstitutional, clearly a violation of the First Amendment."
     Proposition 15, an initiative backed by a $1.5 million kitty from theater owners, declared pay TV "contrary to public policy."
     A leader of the fight against pay TV was Eugene V. Klein, president of National General Corporation, which operates 217 theaters, mostly in California.
     "It's obvious that the people of California are for free TV to pay TV.  Californians find it obnoxious to pay $1.50 to watch the Los Angeles Dodgers and the San Francisco Giants while the rest of the country gets their baseball on free TV," said Klein.
     The subscription system transmits its program by coaxial cable to a little box which attaches to the customer's regular TV set. There are three channels. Picture, quality and sound are of high caliber.
     The box permits reception of sound and picture and sends back impulses so the firm can know by electronic bookkeeping how much to bill subscribers.
     -- Associated Press, November 4
     -- Image from campaign against pay TV  (videos: @ and @)

* California ballot proposition, 1964 (University of California Hastings Law Library): @
* "The Box: Will it revolutionize TV, reshape the movies, retune the American mind?" (Life magazine, July 17, 1964): @
* "Pay TV: The Day The Money Stopped" (New York Times, November 15): @
* "Stupid Question, Stupid Answer" (Life, November 20): @
* "California High Court Voids Ban on Pay TV" (United Press International, March 3, 1966): @
* "Court Hits California Pay-TV Ban" (Associated Press, October 10, 1966): @
* "Pay Television" (Museum of Broadcast Communications): @
* "Hollywood in the Age of Television" (edited by Tino Balio, 1990): @ 
* "The Rise of Cable Programming in the United States: Evolution or Revolution" (Megan Mullen, 2003): @


Tuesday, November 3, 1964: U.S. presidential election

The nation gave Lyndon B. Johnson a thundering go-ahead for his broad welfare and co-existence programs today after he rocked Barry Goldwater with the worst drubbing any man has taken since Alf Landon.
     Topping Franklin D. Roosevelt on his 1936 rout of Landon, President Johnson took Maine and Vermont, too, last bastions of granite Republicanism, in a sweep of 44 states and the District of Columbia. Riding the tide as his beaming running-mate was Sen. Hubert Humphrey (D-Minn.).
     Goldwater's cry for a return to conservatism was shouted down across the nation. He scooped up only his own Arizona and a tier of brooding Deep South states that behaved much the same way in 1948 when they sulked in the Dixiecrat tent.
     -- The Miami News
     -- Map from

* Summary (Presidential Campaigns & Elections): @
* Results (Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections): @
* "The Johnson Landslide" (newsreel; from C-SPAN): @
* Life magazine, November 13: @ 


November 1964: 'The Paranoid Style in American Politics'

     Richard Hofstadter delivered the first version of "The Paranoid Style in American Politics" as a Herbert Spencer Lecture at Oxford University in November 1963, the same month that President John F. Kennedy was murdered; an abridged version appeared in Harper's Magazine the following year. The lecture had grown out of Hofstadter's long-standing apprehensions about the rise of American right-wing extremism after World War II -- most conspicuously the McCarthyite hysteria of the early 1950s but also the profusion of new right-wing organizations such as the John Birch Society. ... 
     Hofstadter discovered a chronic, rancid syndrome in our political life that he called, loosely, "paranoid." The paranoid style, he contended, had long afflicted radical movements on the left as well as the right, and had even touched some good causes, including the antislavery movement. Usually, however, it appeared in bad ones. ...
     Hofstadter studied the Goldwater campaign closely and wrote an essay about its worrisome paranoid emanations. ... To read these selections today is to see a devoted liberal of moderate disposition aroused by his realization that, despite Goldwater's crushing defeat in 1964, some of the worst distempers of American democracy had become, as he wrote, "a formidable force in our politics" -- and, quite possibly, a permanent one.
     -- From the forward to "The Paranoid Style in American Politics and Other Essays" (2008 reissue)

* As printed in Harper's Magazine (November 1964): @
* As printed by Harvard University Press (1996): @
* "A Long View: Goldwater in History" (Hofstadter, The New York Review of Books, October 1964): @
* "Richard Hofstadter: A Reading List" (New York Times, 2006): @
* "Why Richard Hofstadter is Still Worth Reading but Not for the Reasons the Critics Have in Mind" (Jon Weiner, University of California, Irvine, 2006): @
* "Richard Hofstadter: An Intellectual Biography" (David S. Brown, 2006): @ 


Friday, October 30, 1964: Buffalo wings

Buffalo chicken wings are divided into two pieces (the wingtips discarded), then fried and coated with a mild, oil-based hot sauce; and served with blue cheese dressing and celery sticks. They were invented by Teressa Bellissimo October 30, 1964, at the Anchor Bar in Buffalo, New York ... No food origin story is ever simple, and even this recent and well-recorded event has three versions: 1. The wings were a spontaneous snack for Bellissimo's son Frank and friends; 2. The wings were a Friday-midnight inspiration for Catholic customers who had not had meat all day; 3. The wings had been delivered in error instead of necks and backs for spaghetti sauce or stock, and were salvaged as appetizers.
     -- Image from Anchor Bar menu

* Anchor Bar website: @
* Entry from "Atlas of Popular Culture in the Northeastern United States" (click on "Buffalo Wings"): @
* Entry from "The Story Behind the Dish: Classic American Foods" (Mark McWilliams, 2002): @
* Entry from "Frommer's 500 Places for Food and Wine Lovers" (Holly Hughes, 2009): @
* "An Attempt to Compile a Short History of the Buffalo Chicken Wing" (Calvin Trillin, The New Yorker, August 1980): @ 


Wednesday-Thursday, October 28-29, 1964: 'T.A.M.I. Show'

Filmed over two days at the Santa Monica (Calif.) Civic Auditorium, "The T.A.M.I. Show" (short for  Teenage Awards Music International or Teen Age Music International) featured some of the biggest stars in rock and pop music, including The Rolling Stones, James Brown and the Flames, The Supremes, The Beach Boys and Lesley Gore. It was released in theaters in December 1964.

* Movie trailer: @
* Summary from New York Times: @
* "14 Things You Didn't Know About Epic Rock Doc The T.A.M.I. Show" (Esquire magazine, 2014): @
* "The Rock Concert That Captured an Era" (Smithsonian magazine, 2010): @
* "The T.A.M.I. Show: A Groundbreaking '60s Concert" (NPR, 2010): @
* "DVD Review: The T.A.M.I. Show" (PopDose, 2010): @
* "The TAMI Show Remembered on Its 40th Anniversary" (Stephen Rosen, Indiewire, 2004): @
* "TAMI, Electronovision's Latest, Gets N.Y. Showing" (Billboard magazine, November 21, 1964): @


Tuesday, October 27, 1964: 'A Time for Choosing'

On October 27, 1964, future president Ronald Reagan delivered a 30-minute television campaign speech for Republican presidential candidate Barry Goldwater. Later titled the "A Time for Choosing" speech, it raised hundreds of thousands of dollars for the Goldwater campaign and helped launch Reagan's political career.
     -- Summary by C-SPAN
Note: The speech, televised by NBC, had been taped a week earlier and was more a reflection of Reagan's own political views than it was an explicit endorsement of Goldwater. Estimates of how much money it raised vary widely, with some saying it ran into the millions.

* Watch the speech (video from Reagan Foundation): @
* Transcript (Reagan Foundation): @
* "Why Ronald Reagan's 'A Time for Choosing' endures after all this time" (Stephen F. Hayward, for The Washingon Post, October 2013): @
* "Ronald Reagan and 'A Time for Choosing' " (Los Angeles Times, February 2011): @
* "The Myth of Reagan's GOP convention speech in 1964" (National Constitution Center): @
* "Rendevous with Destiny" (from GE): @
* Excerpt from "The Right Moment: Ronald Reagan's First Victory and the Decisive Turning Point in American Politics" (Matthew Dallek, 2000): @


Thursday, October 22, 1964: 'Choice'

Supporters of Senator Barry Goldwater have produced a television film featuring semi-nude dancing girls, pornographyic magazine covers, street riots and a girl in a topless swim suit to show the "moral decay" of the nation since President Johnson took office. The film called Choice was reported to be the idea of Mothers for Moral America, a group backing the Republican Presidential candidate in the election campaign. ... The film will be shown jointly by the Mothers for Moral American and Citizens for Goldwater-Miller to the press at the national press club today. It is also due to be shown over a national television network today. (Full story: @)
     Note: "Choice" never aired. Goldwater himself repudiated the film once he saw it. 
-- Photo of newspaper clipping from CONELRAD (link below)

* Watch the film (video posted by CONELRAD): @
* "Goldwater Rejects Supporters' Film as 'Nothing but Racist' " (The Milwaukee Journal, October 22): @
* " 'Choice' (1964): The Scrapook" (CONELRAD; includes links to related entries): @
* "Barry Goldwater's Mothers for Moral America" (CONELRAD): @
* "The First Days of the Loaded Political Image" (New York Times, September 1996): @
* Excerpt from "Packaging the Presidency: A History and Criticism of Presidential Campaign Advertising" (Kathleen Hall Jamieson, 1996; begins on page 212): @
* Excerpt from "A Glorious Disaster: Barry Goldwater's Presidential Campaign and the Origins of the Conservative Movement" (J. William Middendorf II): @
* Excerpt from "Mothers of Conservatism: Women and the Postwar Right" (Michelle M. Nickerson, 2012): @
* Excerpt from "Barry Goldwater and the Remaking of American Political Landscape" (2013): @ 


Friday, October 16, 1964: China's first nuclear test

Communist China joined the world's atomic powers today with an announcement it has exploded its first bomb in the western region of China. The announcement, coming less than 24 hours after the ouster of Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, was sure to raise China's Mao Tse-Tung's stature among world Communist leaders. The official New China news agency statement said only: "China exploded an atom bomb at 1500 hours on Oct. 16, 1964, and thereby conducted successfully its first nuclear test."
     -- Associated Press (full story: @)

* Story from New York Times: @
* Summary from CTBTO Preparatory Commission: @
* Summary from Federation of American Scientists: @
* Summary from Nuclear Threat Initiative: @
* Summary and links from The National Security Archive: @ 


Thursday, October 15, 1964: Khrushchev ousted

The Nikita Khrushchev era, embracing ten years of cold war and coexistence, has ended with his retirement as premier and top man in the Soviet Communist Party "in view of his advanced age and deterioration of his health."
     His protege, Leonid Brezhnev, at 57 Khrushchev's junior by 13 years, has taken over the key party post. Alexei Kosygin, the man Khrushchev trusted to run the government during his frequent absences abroad, has become premier. Khrushchev's jobs are this divided, as they used to be.
   In the last two days Khrushchev has disappeared from public view. A picture of him mounted near the Kremlin was taken down last night. Three hours later, at midnight, came the official announcement of the charges ... Tass said the changes were decided upon Wednesday and Thursday.
     -- Associated Press (full story: @)
     -- 1963 photo of Khrushchev and Brezhnev from Corbis Images

* Miami News, October 15: @
* Miami News, October 16: @
* New York Times, October 16: @ 
* Life magazine, October 23 (coverage starts on page 30): @ 
* "Khrushchev Resigns" (newsreel; from Critical Past): @ 
* Summary from BBC: @ 
* Entry from "Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States" (M. Wesley Shoemaker, 2012): @ * "Khrushchev's Downfall and Its Consequences" (FRUS, 1964-1968, Volume XIV, Soviet Union): @ 


October 1964: 'If I Were the Devil'

Radio/newspaper commentator Paul Harvey's famous column appears in newspapers throughout the United States. Harvey describes what actions Satan would take to reign over civilization, at the end revealing that all the events are already taking place.
     Note: The column's earliest appearance in a newspaper is October 1964, but the book "Good Day!" (linked below) dates the piece to 1960. Harvey also read the piece as part of his radio broadcast.

* 1964 column: @
* 1996 version: @
* Entry from @
* Harvey biography from Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture: @
* Harvey biography from Radio Hall of Fame: @
* "Good Day!: The Paul Harvey Story" (Paul J. Batura, 2009): @ 


October 1964: Moog synthesizer

Robert A. Moog and Herbert A. Deutsch introduce and demonstrate their music synthesizer at the convention of the Audio Engineering Society (October 12-16, New York).
-- Photo from Henry Ford Museum. Caption: "This Moog synthesizer is one of two prototypes built by Robert Moog from July-September 1964, with additional modules added in 1964 and 1964. One was taken to Toronto University in 1965, while this one was kept by the inventor and his colleague, Herbert Deutsch. It was used in live public performance for the first time in a concert at Town Hall in New York City on September 25, 1965." (The instrument was donated to the museum in 1982.)

* "Voltage-Controlled Electronic Music Modules" (Journal of Audio Engineering Society, July 1965; paper presented October 14, 1964 at AES convention): @
* Bob Moog Foundation: @
* Moog Archives: @ 
* FAQ on Moog Archive donation (Cornell University Library): @
* Moog Music Inc.: @
* Interview with Moog (March 1997): @
* "The Moog's First Decade: 1965-1975" (Deutsch, 1981): @
* Deutsch faculty profile (Hofstra University): @
* "The Man Who Switched On Bach" (New Scientist, December 1982): @
* "Analog Days: The Invention and Impact of the Moog Synthesizer" (Trevor Pinch and Frank Trocco, 2002): @
* "Electronic and Experimental Music" (Thom Holmes, 2002): @
* "The First Moog Synthesizer Recordings" (Holmes, 2013): @
* "The Zodiac: Cosmic Sounds" (album, 1967): @
* "The Synthesizer" (Mark Vail, 2014): @ 

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