The '60s at 50


Tuesday, November 3, 1964: U.S. presidential election

The nation gave Lyndon B. Johnson a thundering go-ahead for his broad welfare and co-existence programs today after he rocked Barry Goldwater with the worst drubbing any man has taken since Alf Landon.
     Topping Franklin D. Roosevelt on his 1936 rout of Landon, President Johnson took Maine and Vermont, too, last bastions of granite Republicanism, in a sweep of 44 states and the District of Columbia. Riding the tide as his beaming running-mate was Sen. Hubert Humphrey (D-Minn.).
     Goldwater's cry for a return to conservatism was shouted down across the nation. He scooped up only his own Arizona and a tier of brooding Deep South states that behaved much the same way in 1948 when they sulked in the Dixiecrat tent.
     -- The Miami News
     -- Map from

* Summary (Presidential Campaigns & Elections): @
* Results (Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections): @
* "The Johnson Landslide" (newsreel; from C-SPAN): @
* Life magazine, November 13: @ 


November 1964: 'The Paranoid Style in American Politics'

     Richard Hofstadter delivered the first version of "The Paranoid Style in American Politics" as a Herbert Spencer Lecture at Oxford University in November 1963, the same month that President John F. Kennedy was murdered; an abridged version appeared in Harper's Magazine the following year. The lecture had grown out of Hofstadter's long-standing apprehensions about the rise of American right-wing extremism after World War II -- most conspicuously the McCarthyite hysteria of the early 1950s but also the profusion of new right-wing organizations such as the John Birch Society. ... 
     Hofstadter discovered a chronic, rancid syndrome in our political life that he called, loosely, "paranoid." The paranoid style, he contended, had long afflicted radical movements on the left as well as the right, and had even touched some good causes, including the antislavery movement. Usually, however, it appeared in bad ones. ...
     Hofstadter studied the Goldwater campaign closely and wrote an essay about its worrisome paranoid emanations. ... To read these selections today is to see a devoted liberal of moderate disposition aroused by his realization that, despite Goldwater's crushing defeat in 1964, some of the worst distempers of American democracy had become, as he wrote, "a formidable force in our politics" -- and, quite possibly, a permanent one.
     -- From the forward to "The Paranoid Style in American Politics and Other Essays" (2008 reissue)

* As printed in Harper's Magazine (November 1964): @
* As printed by Harvard University Press (1996): @
* "A Long View: Goldwater in History" (Hofstadter, The New York Review of Books, October 1964): @
* "Richard Hofstadter: A Reading List" (New York Times, 2006): @
* "Why Richard Hofstadter is Still Worth Reading but Not for the Reasons the Critics Have in Mind" (Jon Weiner, University of California, Irvine, 2006): @
* "Richard Hofstadter: An Intellectual Biography" (David S. Brown, 2006): @ 


Friday, October 30, 1964: Buffalo wings

Buffalo chicken wings are divided into two pieces (the wingtips discarded), then fried and coated with a mild, oil-based hot sauce; and served with blue cheese dressing and celery sticks. They were invented by Teressa Bellissimo October 30, 1964, at the Anchor Bar in Buffalo, New York ... No food origin story is ever simple, and even this recent and well-recorded event has three versions: 1. The wings were a spontaneous snack for Bellissimo's son Frank and friends; 2. The wings were a Friday-midnight inspiration for Catholic customers who had not had meat all day; 3. The wings had been delivered in error instead of necks and backs for spaghetti sauce or stock, and were salvaged as appetizers.
     -- Image from Anchor Bar menu

* Anchor Bar website: @
* Entry from "Atlas of Popular Culture in the Northeastern United States" (click on "Buffalo Wings"): @
* Entry from "The Story Behind the Dish: Classic American Foods" (Mark McWilliams, 2002): @
* Entry from "Frommer's 500 Places for Food and Wine Lovers" (Holly Hughes, 2009): @
* "An Attempt to Compile a Short History of the Buffalo Chicken Wing" (Calvin Trillin, The New Yorker, August 1980): @ 


Wednesday-Thursday, October 28-29, 1964: 'T.A.M.I. Show'

Filmed over two days at the Santa Monica (Calif.) Civic Auditorium, "The T.A.M.I. Show" (short for  Teenage Awards Music International or Teen Age Music International) featured some of the biggest stars in rock and pop music, including The Rolling Stones, James Brown and the Flames, The Supremes, The Beach Boys and Lesley Gore. It was released in theaters in December 1964.

* Movie trailer: @
* Summary from New York Times: @
* "14 Things You Didn't Know About Epic Rock Doc The T.A.M.I. Show" (Esquire magazine, 2014): @
* "The Rock Concert That Captured an Era" (Smithsonian magazine, 2010): @
* "The T.A.M.I. Show: A Groundbreaking '60s Concert" (NPR, 2010): @
* "DVD Review: The T.A.M.I. Show" (PopDose, 2010): @
* "The TAMI Show Remembered on Its 40th Anniversary" (Stephen Rosen, Indiewire, 2004): @
* "TAMI, Electronovision's Latest, Gets N.Y. Showing" (Billboard magazine, November 21, 1964): @


Tuesday, October 27, 1964: 'A Time for Choosing'

On October 27, 1964, future president Ronald Reagan delivered a 30-minute television campaign speech for Republican presidential candidate Barry Goldwater. Later titled the "A Time for Choosing" speech, it raised hundreds of thousands of dollars for the Goldwater campaign and helped launch Reagan's political career.
     -- Summary by C-SPAN
Note: The speech, televised by NBC, had been taped a week earlier and was more a reflection of Reagan's own political views than it was an explicit endorsement of Goldwater. Estimates of how much money it raised vary widely, with some saying it ran into the millions.

* Watch the speech (video from Reagan Foundation): @
* Transcript (Reagan Foundation): @
* "Why Ronald Reagan's 'A Time for Choosing' endures after all this time" (Stephen F. Hayward, for The Washingon Post, October 2013): @
* "Ronald Reagan and 'A Time for Choosing' " (Los Angeles Times, February 2011): @
* "The Myth of Reagan's GOP convention speech in 1964" (National Constitution Center): @
* "Rendevous with Destiny" (from GE): @
* Excerpt from "The Right Moment: Ronald Reagan's First Victory and the Decisive Turning Point in American Politics" (Matthew Dallek, 2000): @


Thursday, October 22, 1964: 'Choice'

Supporters of Senator Barry Goldwater have produced a television film featuring semi-nude dancing girls, pornographyic magazine covers, street riots and a girl in a topless swim suit to show the "moral decay" of the nation since President Johnson took office. The film called Choice was reported to be the idea of Mothers for Moral America, a group backing the Republican Presidential candidate in the election campaign. ... The film will be shown jointly by the Mothers for Moral American and Citizens for Goldwater-Miller to the press at the national press club today. It is also due to be shown over a national television network today. (Full story: @)
     Note: "Choice" never aired. Goldwater himself repudiated the film once he saw it. 
-- Photo of newspaper clipping from CONELRAD (link below)

* Watch the film (video posted by CONELRAD): @
* "Goldwater Rejects Supporters' Film as 'Nothing but Racist' " (The Milwaukee Journal, October 22): @
* " 'Choice' (1964): The Scrapook" (CONELRAD; includes links to related entries): @
* "Barry Goldwater's Mothers for Moral America" (CONELRAD): @
* "The First Days of the Loaded Political Image" (New York Times, September 1996): @
* Excerpt from "Packaging the Presidency: A History and Criticism of Presidential Campaign Advertising" (Kathleen Hall Jamieson, 1996; begins on page 212): @
* Excerpt from "A Glorious Disaster: Barry Goldwater's Presidential Campaign and the Origins of the Conservative Movement" (J. William Middendorf II): @
* Excerpt from "Mothers of Conservatism: Women and the Postwar Right" (Michelle M. Nickerson, 2012): @
* Excerpt from "Barry Goldwater and the Remaking of American Political Landscape" (2013): @ 


Friday, October 16, 1964: China's first nuclear test

Communist China joined the world's atomic powers today with an announcement it has exploded its first bomb in the western region of China. The announcement, coming less than 24 hours after the ouster of Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, was sure to raise China's Mao Tse-Tung's stature among world Communist leaders. The official New China news agency statement said only: "China exploded an atom bomb at 1500 hours on Oct. 16, 1964, and thereby conducted successfully its first nuclear test."
     -- Associated Press (full story: @)

* Story from New York Times: @
* Summary from CTBTO Preparatory Commission: @
* Summary from Federation of American Scientists: @
* Summary from Nuclear Threat Initiative: @
* Summary and links from The National Security Archive: @ 


Thursday, October 15, 1964: Khrushchev ousted

The Nikita Khrushchev era, embracing ten years of cold war and coexistence, has ended with his retirement as premier and top man in the Soviet Communist Party "in view of his advanced age and deterioration of his health."
     His protege, Leonid Brezhnev, at 57 Khrushchev's junior by 13 years, has taken over the key party post. Alexei Kosygin, the man Khrushchev trusted to run the government during his frequent absences abroad, has become premier. Khrushchev's jobs are this divided, as they used to be.
   In the last two days Khrushchev has disappeared from public view. A picture of him mounted near the Kremlin was taken down last night. Three hours later, at midnight, came the official announcement of the charges ... Tass said the changes were decided upon Wednesday and Thursday.
     -- Associated Press (full story: @)
     -- 1963 photo of Khrushchev and Brezhnev from Corbis Images

* Miami News, October 15: @
* Miami News, October 16: @
* New York Times, October 16: @ 
* Life magazine, October 23 (coverage starts on page 30): @ 
* "Khrushchev Resigns" (newsreel; from Critical Past): @ 
* Summary from BBC: @ 
* Entry from "Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States" (M. Wesley Shoemaker, 2012): @ * "Khrushchev's Downfall and Its Consequences" (FRUS, 1964-1968, Volume XIV, Soviet Union): @ 


October 1964: 'If I Were the Devil'

Radio/newspaper commentator Paul Harvey's famous column appears in newspapers throughout the United States. Harvey describes what actions Satan would take to reign over civilization, at the end revealing that all the events are already taking place.
     Note: The column's earliest appearance in a newspaper is October 1964, but the book "Good Day!" (linked below) dates the piece to 1960. Harvey also read the piece as part of his radio broadcast.

* 1964 column: @
* 1996 version: @
* Entry from @
* Harvey biography from Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture: @
* Harvey biography from Radio Hall of Fame: @
* "Good Day!: The Paul Harvey Story" (Paul J. Batura, 2009): @ 


October 1964: Moog synthesizer

Robert A. Moog and Herbert A. Deutsch introduce and demonstrate their music synthesizer at the convention of the Audio Engineering Society (October 12-16, New York).
-- Photo from Henry Ford Museum. Caption: "This Moog synthesizer is one of two prototypes built by Robert Moog from July-September 1964, with additional modules added in 1964 and 1964. One was taken to Toronto University in 1965, while this one was kept by the inventor and his colleague, Herbert Deutsch. It was used in live public performance for the first time in a concert at Town Hall in New York City on September 25, 1965." (The instrument was donated to the museum in 1982.)

* "Voltage-Controlled Electronic Music Modules" (Journal of Audio Engineering Society, July 1965; paper presented October 14, 1964 at AES convention): @
* Bob Moog Foundation: @
* Moog Archives: @ 
* FAQ on Moog Archive donation (Cornell University Library): @
* Moog Music Inc.: @
* Interview with Moog (March 1997): @
* "The Moog's First Decade: 1965-1975" (Deutsch, 1981): @
* Deutsch faculty profile (Hofstra University): @
* "The Man Who Switched On Bach" (New Scientist, December 1982): @
* "Analog Days: The Invention and Impact of the Moog Synthesizer" (Trevor Pinch and Frank Trocco, 2002): @
* "Electronic and Experimental Music" (Thom Holmes, 2002): @
* "The First Moog Synthesizer Recordings" (Holmes, 2013): @
* "The Zodiac: Cosmic Sounds" (album, 1967): @
* "The Synthesizer" (Mark Vail, 2014): @ 


Thursday, October 1, 1964: Bullet train

TOKYO -- Japan's new electric "Dream Train" rolled out of Tokyo station this morning on its 347-mile maiden trip to Osaka. The train has a top speed of 125 mph. Japanese rail officials planned the fast service to start in time for the Olympic games opening here Oct. 10. (United Press International)
-- Photo from Kyodo News Service. Caption: A superexpress Hikari train passes by (Tokyo's) Nichigeki Theatre in Yurakucho district on Dec. 21, 1964. Tokaido Shinkansen line was inaugurated on Oct. 1 just before Tokyo and Shin-Osaka in four hours and emerging as the world's first high-speed rail for mass transport.

* "Japan's Bullet Train, the World's First (and Still Best) High-Speed Rail Network, Turns 50" (Next City): @
* "Japan's Shinkansen: Revolutionary design at 50" (BBC): @
* "Fifty Years Ago and Today, Japan Blazes Trails with Trains": @
* "About the Shinkansen" (Central Japan Railway Company): @
* Episode of "Richard Hammond's Engineering Connections" (2011): @
* "High Speed Rail in Japan: A Review and Evaluation of the Shinkansen Train" (University of California Transportation Center, 1992): @ 


September 1964-January 1965: Free Speech Movement

The Free Speech Movement (FSM) had its beginnings with students involved with CORE (Congress on Racial Equality) and the Southern civil rights movement.
     In the summer of 1964 some students at the University of California Berkeley had gone south to work with CORE and returned for the new school year in September. The school president, Clark Kerr, restricted political activities and suspended eight students of CORE.
     One of those suspended was Mario Savio, who had taught at a Freedom School run by CORE in McComb, Miss. (Savio would later become the spokesman for the movement.)
     California and the United States were in the middle of the Cold War at the time, when any political activity outside of the norm was considered subversive and labeled as Communist. Kerr and many other Californians saw the spread of the civil rights movement to Berkeley in this light and tried to stop it.
     On October 1, Jack Weinberg was arrested for running a CORE table on campus. Spontaneously, hundreds of students surrounded the police car Weinberg was being taken away in. Weinberg, the squad car, and hundreds of students would stay for the next 32 hours until Weinberg was released under a compromise worked out between President Kerr and the students. In response, the FSM was formed on October 4 with the goals of gaining the right to free speech for student activists.
     Over the next several months the FSM had a running battle with the school administration using rallies, marches, petitions and arrests to press their point. By December 1964, the students had won their demands and opened up political activity at Berkeley.
     The Free Speech Movement became a sign of the power of student activism that would be a trademark of the 1960s.

-- Excerpted from Oakland Museum of California. Note: In early January 1965, Berkeley Chancellor Edward W. Strong was replaced by Martin Meyerson, who issued new regulations concerning political activity that largely reflect what the Free Speech Movement had been demanding.

-- Photo of students in Sproul Plaza surrounding police car, with Mario Savio speaking from roof of car; October 1, 1964 (Lon Wilson; The Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley)

* Summary from "Encylopedia of the Sixties" (2012): @
* Summary from Constitutional Rights Foundation: @
* Summary by Jo Freeman: @
* Chronology (Free Speech Movement Digital Archive): @
* Free Speech Movement Archives: @
* FSM 50 (UC Berkeley website): @
* SLATE Archives: @
* Documents (Free Speech Movement Archives): @
* Newspaper front pages (Free Speech Movement Archives): @
* Press coverage, documents, other items (Barbara Toby Stack): @
* Photos (Calisphere, University of California): @ and @
* Audio of events (Pacifica Radio Archives): @
* Social Activism Sound Recording Project: The Free Speech Movement and Its Legacy (UC Berkeley): @
* "Free Speech Movement: Sounds and Songs of the Movement" (1965; Internet Archive): @
* December 2 speech by Mario Savio (text, audio, video; from American Rhetoric): @
* FBI files on Savio: @ 
* "Freedom's Orator: Mario Savio and the Radical Legacy of the 1960s" (Robert Cohen, 2009): @
* "Heated Dispute Focuses World Attention on Berkeley" (Associated Press, December 13, 1964): @ 
* "Panty Raids? No! Tough Campus Revolt" (Life magazine, December 18, 1964): @
* "Berkeley Campus in Revolt" (Michael Shute, New Politics, Fall 1964): @ (Note: many other contemporary articles are available through
* "A Special Supplement: Berkeley and the Fate of the Multiversity" (New York Review of Books, March 11, 1965): @
* "The Beginning: Berkeley, 1964" (Max Heirich, 1968): @
* "The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage" (Todd Gitlin, 1987): @
* "Making Peace with the 60s" (David Burner, 1996): @
* "Berkeley at War: The 1960s" (W.J. Rorabough, 1989): @ 
* "The Free Speech Movement: Coming of Age in the 1960s" (David Lance Goines, 1993): @
* "The Free Speech Movement: Reflections on Berkeley in the 1960s" (2002): @ 
* "At Berkeley in the Sixties: The Education of an Activist, 1961-1965" (Jo Freeman, 2004): @


Sunday, September 27, 1964: Warren Commission report

The assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy on November 22, 1963, was a cruel and shocking act of violence directed against a man, a family, a nation, and against all mankind. A young and vigorous leader whose years of public and private life stretched before him was the victim of the fourth Presidential assassination in the history of a country dedicated to the concepts of reasoned argument and peaceful political change. This Commission was created on November 29, 1963, in recognition of the right of people everywhere to full and truthful knowledge concerning these events. This report endeavors to fulfill that right and to appraise this tragedy by the light of reason and the standard of fairness. It has been prepared with a deep awareness of the Commission's responsibility to present to the American people an objective report of the facts relating to the assassination.  (Introduction to Warren Report)

The assassination of President Kennedy was the work of one man, Lee Harvey Oswald. There was no conspiracy, foreign or domestic. (New York Times)

Lee Harvey Oswald, in a solitary act of violence free of foreign or domestic conspiracy, assassinated President John F. Kennedy in Dallas on Nov. 22, 1963, the Warren Commission ruled Sunday. (Los Angeles Times)

Why? The great unanswered question in the report of the Warren Commission -- which has just concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald killed President Kennedy -- is why he did it. (Associated Press)

The Secret Service, the FBI, the Dallas police, the State Department and American news media bear the sharpest stings from the Warren Commission for laxness and poor judgment before and after the assassination of President Kennedy. (Associated Press)

The report contains no sensational revelations or unorthodox conclusions. In its sum and substance, it reaffirms almost everything that was already known and understood by most knowledgeable people. Its great value comes from the thoroughness with which the Commission carried out its investigation, from its laying to rest many malignant rumors and speculations, and from its fascinating wealth of detail by which future historians can abide. (Time magazine)

The major significance of the report is that it lays to rest the lurid rumors and wild speculations that had spread after the assassination. (Life magazine)

-- Photo from Allen W. Dulles Papers, Princeton University (Dulles served on the Warren Commission; scale models were built for the investigation)

* Text of report (National Archives): @
* More information from The John F. Kennedy Assassination Information Center: @
* More information from Mary Ferrell Foundation: @
* More information from History Matters: @
* CBS special report, September 27: @
* NBC special report, September 27: @
* New York Times, September 28: @
* Los Angeles Times, September 28: @
* Miami News, September 28: @
* Sarasota Herald-Tribune, September 28: @
* The Guardian, September 28: @
* Time magazine, October 2: @
* Life magazine, October 2: @ 


September-October 1964: Barry Goldwater and Fact magazine

Shortly before the 1964 Presidential election, Fact magazine published an issue entitled "The Unconscious of a Conservative: A Special Issue on the Mind of Barry Goldwater." The thrust of the two main articles in this issue of Fact was that Senator Barry Goldwater, the 1964 Republican nominee for the Presidency, had a severely paranoid personality and was psychologically unfit for the high office to which he aspired. The articles in the magazine attempted to support the thesis that Senator Goldwater was mentally ill by citing allegedly factual incidents from his public and private life and by reporting the results of a "poll" of 12,356 psychiatrists, together with a "sampling" of the comments made by the 2,417 psychiatrists who responded to the poll questionnaire which the magazine mailed out.
     -- U.S. Supreme Court, 1970 (link below)

Legal aftermath: Goldwater sued the magazine, the publisher and the managing editor and in 1968 was awarded $75,000 in punitive damages and $1 in compensatory damages. The magazine appealed but lost before the U.S. Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court.

Note: In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association published "The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry." Section 7.3 became known as "the Goldwater rule." It states: "On occasion psychiatrists are asked for an opinion about an individual who is in the light of public attention or who has disclosed information about himself/herself through public media. In such circumstances, a psychiatrist may share with the public his orher expertise about psychiatric issues in general. However, it is unethical for a psychiatrist to offer a professional opinion unless he or she has conducted an examination and has been granted proper authorization for such a statement." (A link to the entire document can be found here.)

* Front and back cover: @
* "Goldwater Awarded $75,000 Damages" (Associated Press, May 1968): @
* "Libel: Fact, Fiction, Doubt & Barry" (Time magazine, May 17, 1968): @
* Goldwater v. Gizburg, U.S. Court of Appeals (July 1969): @
* Goldwater v. Ginzburg, U.S. Supreme Court (January 1970): @
* "Ginzburg Loses Review Plea in Goldwater Libel Award" (Associated Press, January 1970): @
* "Libel and the First Amendment: Legal History and Practice in Print and Broadcasting" (Richard E. Labunski, 1987): @
* "Suing Over False Political Advertising" (, February 2008): @
* Dr. John D. Mayer has written several times for Psychology Today about the events. Links to his posts can be found here and then by scrolling through the pages.
* "Lingering questions Prompt 'Goldwater Rule' Evaluation" (Psychiatric News, 2008): @
* "How a Telescopic Lens Muddles Psychiatric Insights" (Dr. Richard A. Friedman for The New York Times, May 2011): @ 

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