The '60s at 50


April-July 1965: 'Satisfaction'

April 1965 *
     I was between girlfriends at the time, in my flat in Carlton Hill, St. John's Wood. Hence maybe the mood of the song. I wrote "Satisfaction" in my sleep. I had no idea I'd written it, it's only thank God for the little Philips cassette player. The miracle being that I looked at the cassette player that morning and I knew I'd put a brand-new tape in the previous night, and I saw it was at the end. Then I pushed rewind and there was "Satisfaction." It was just a rough idea. There was just the bare bones of the song, and it didn't have all that noise, of course, because I was on acoustic. And forty minutes of me snoring. -- From "Life," by Keith Richards, 2010: @
     * According to other accounts, this occurred the night of May 6 in Clearwater, Florida, during the Rolling Stones' tour of North America. However, since Richards places it in London, this would have been before the tour, which began April 23 in Montreal, Canada. 
     Mick Jagger was also later quoted as saying that he and Richards worked on the song "half in Canada, half in Florida" (Melody Maker, June 26, 1965). Regardless, the opening riff and the phrase "I Can't Get No Satisfaction" are credited to Richards, while Jagger wrote most of the rest of the lyrics.

May 10-12
     The band records the song, first in Chicago (May 10) and then in Los Angeles (May 11-12).

May 20, May 26

     The band premieres the song on the television show "Shindig!" (The show was taped on May 20 and aired on ABC on May 26.)

Late May, possibly May 27 *
     The song is released in the United States.
     * Many accounts say the song was released June 5 or June 6, but the single was already on sale by then. The image above is from The Portsmouth (New Hampshire) Herald, June 3, 1965.

June 5
     "Satisfaction" is first mentioned in Billboard magazine's "Singles Reviews," above.
     * June 5 issue: @

June 12
     The song debuts on Billboard's Hot 100 at No. 67.
     * June 12 issue: @

July 10
     "Satisfaction" reaches No. 1 on the Billboard charts; it stays at the top for four weeks, displaced on August 7 by "I'm Henry VIII, I Am" by Herman's Hermits.
     * Billboard chart for July 10 (from @
     * July 17 issue: @
     * July 24 issue: @
     * July 31 issue: @
     * August 7 issue: @

August 20 *
     "Satisfaction" is released in Britain. The B-side was "The Spider and The Fly," unlike the American release, whose B-side was "The Under Assistant West Coast Promotion Man."
     * Date approximate; from Billboard, August 21: "This week Decca rushes out in Britain the Stones' recent big American hit '(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction' ..."

* Entry from "Rocks Off: 50 Tracks That Tell the Story of the Rolling Stones" (Bill Janovitz, 2013): @
* Entry from "The Billboard Book of Number One Hits" (2003): @
* Entry from @
* "The Rolling Stones' ('I Can't Get No) Satisfaction' " (Performing Songwriter, 2013): @
* "Behind the Song: 'Satisfaction' " (American Songwriter, 2012): @
* "Let It Read! The Ultimate Literary Guide to the Rolling Stones" (The Daily Beast, 2012): @
* "Rolling Stoned" (Andrew Loog Oldham, 2011): @
* "Stone Alone: The Story of a Rock 'n' Roll Band" (Bill Wyman, 1990): @
* "The Complete Works of the Rolling Stones" (database): @
* "The Rolling Stones: Off the Record" (Mark Paytress, 2003): @
* "The Rolling Stones: Fifty Years" (Christopher Sandford, 2012): @
* "1965: The Most Revolutionary Year in Music" (Andrew Grant Jackson, 2015): @
* Please Please Me: Sixties British Pop, Inside Out" (Gordon Thompson, 2008): @


1965: LBJ's Amphicar

     Built in Germany from 1961 to 1968, the Amphicar is the only civilian amphibious passenger automobile ever to be mass produced. A total of 3,878 vehicles were produced in four colors: Beach White, Regatta Red, Fjord Green (Aqua) and Lagoon Blue -- the color of President Johnson's Amphicar. President Johnson enjoyed surprising unsuspecting guests when taking them for a ride in his Amphicar.
     "The President, with Vicky McCammon in the seat alongside him and me in the back, was now driving around in a small blue car with the top down. We reached a steep incline at the edge of the lake and the car started rolling rapidly toward the water. The President shouted, 'The brakes don't work! The brakes won't hold! We're going in! We're going under!' The car splashed into the water. I started to get out. Just then the car leveled and I realized we were in an Amphicar. The President laughed. As we putted along the lake then (and throughout the evening), he teased me. 'Vicky, did you see what Joe did? He didn't give a damn about his President. He just wanted to save his own skin and get out of the car.' Then he'd roar." -- Joseph A. Califano Jr. (special assistant to Johnson, 1965-1969).

     -- Text from "Presidential Vehicles" (Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park): @
     -- Photo from LBJ Library, dated April 10, 1965; passengers are Eunice Kennedy Shriver and Paul Glynn; photo by Yoichi Okamoto 

* "LBJ's Amphibious Car" (footage from LBJ Library): @
* "Remembering Amphicar, the swim-utility vehicle" (BBC, 2015): @
* "I Drove Through a Flood in a Car That 'Swims' " (Popular Science, August 1967): @
* "The Amphicar: What It's Like to Drive" (Popular Science, July 1960): @ 
* Short history (from @
* The International Amphicar Owner's Club: @
* @
* @
* Amphicar forums: @ 


Monday, April 19, 1965: Moore's Law

Electronics magazine publishes Gordon Moore's paper, "Cramming More Components Onto Integrated Circuits." His observation -- "the amount of computing power available for a given cost has increased and continues to increase by a factor of two every 18 months to 2 years" -- came to be known as Moore's Law.

-- Quoted material from "The Encyclopedia of Cryptography and Security" (2011): @
-- Image (cost vs. time sketch from Moore's 1964 notebook) from Computer History Museum: @

* PDF of Electronics article: @
* "Moore's Law at 50: Its past and its future" (Extreme Tech): @
* "Moore's Law Hits Middle Age" (EE Times, April 2015): @
* "The Multiple Lives of Moore's Law" (IEEE Spectrum, March 2015): @
* "10 images that explain the incredible power of Moore's Law" (Washington Post, April 2015): @
* "Understanding Moore's Law: Four Decades of Innovation" (Chemical Heritage Foundation, 2006): @ 


Saturday, April 17, 1965: March on Washington to End the War in Vietnam

Thousands of students demanding an end to the war in Viet Nam massed in Washington Saturday, picketing, singing and shouting for their case. The demonstration, one of the largest ever to take place around the White House, was billed by its sponsors, an organization calling itself Students for a Democratic Society, as the start of a national protest movement against U.S. policy in Viet Nam. Demonstration leaders said 20,000 students responded to the call they sent to colleges across the nation for support. Police estimated the number at 12,000 to 15,000.
-- Excerpt from Associated Press: @
-- Image of flier from  Students for a Democratic Society Papers, 1958-1970: @

* Summary from "Encyclopedia of Student and Youth Movements" via Facts on File: @
* Flier (The King Center): @
* Paul Potter's speech ( @
* "Paul Potter, 'The Incredible War' (17 April 1965)": @ (Jeffery P. Drury, Central Michigan University)
* @ 


Wednesday, April 14, 1965: 'In Cold Blood' killers executed

Lansing, Kas. -- Richard Eugene Hickock, 34, and Perry Edward Smith, 36, were hanged early Wednesday for the 1959 slayings of a family of four. They were convicted of the Nov. 14, 1959, robbery-murder of rancher Herbert W. Clutter, his wife, and the couple's two teen age children. The four victims had been bound, gagged and shot point blank in the head with a 12 gauge shotgun. Clutter was a farm adviser of the Eisenhower administration. The killers had been searching for a nonexistent fortune supposedly stashed away by the Clutter family in their Garden City (Kas.) home. All Hickock and Smith got for their efforts was $80 a portable radio and a pair of cheap binoculars. Their last hope of avoiding the noose died Tuesday when United States Supreme Court Justice Byron R. White took no action on a last minute appeal for a stay of execution.
     -- Story by United Press International
     -- Photo by Associated Press; Hickock is at left

Note: "In Cold Blood," Truman Capote's account of the killings, first appeared as a four-part series beginning with the September 25, 1965, issue of The New Yorker magazine, and was then published in book form in January 1966.

* 50th-anniversary story from The Topeka Capital-Journal: @


Friday, April 9, 1965: The Astrodome

HOUSTON, Tex. -- There was a bomb scare but President Johnson showed no concern Friday night as he and 47,876 other fans watched air conditioned baseball. An anonymous report that a bomb had been placed in the $31.6 million Harris County Domed Stadium proved false but it caused the President and the first lady to be late for the opening of the all-weather structure. They saw 7 1/2 innings as the Houston Astros opened their astrodome by beating the New York Yankees 2-1 in 12 innings. The President told newsmen he was impressed with the stadium, which permits professional baseball to move indoors for the first time. Because of the bomb scare, the presidential party watched the game from the private suite of Roy Hofheinz and R.E. (Bob) Smith, owner of the Astros. The suite is 30 feet above the right field pavilion and the crowd saw the President and Mrs. Johnson only through its windows. They did not go down on the playing field.
     -- Story from Associated Press
     -- Photo from Houston Chronicle; caption reads: A photo taken from the Astrodome's gondola shows the stadium's baseball field on April 1, 1965.

* "First Game in the Astrodome" ( @
* "Rain or shine -- play ball!" (Life magazine, April 9, 1965): @
* "What a Wonder! What a Blunder!" (Life magazine, April 23): @
* Summary from Texas State Historical Association: @
* Summary from American Historic Engineering Record, National Park Service: @
* Overview from "Housing the Spectacle: Dome Case Studies" (Columbia University): @
* "Game Over for the Astrodome, 'Stadium of the Future' " (New York Times, March 2015): @ 


Wednesday, April 7, 1965: 'Peace Without Conquest' speech

On the evening of April 7, 1965, Lyndon Johnson spoke before a television audience at Johns Hopkins University to offer his rationale for recently ramped up American military presence in Vietnam and to tell the world of U.S. intentions to come to the aid of the people of Southeast Asia in a bold new way. ... The president suggested the whole area be developed and modernized as an alternative to continued war. The speech was designed to encourage those in Hanoi to agree to stop warring and to take part in the development of the region, and also to put a good face on the new American measures implemented since February, including sustained aerial bombardment and combat troops.
     -- From "Inventing Vietnam: The United States and State Building, 1954-1968" (James M. Carter, 2008): @ 

* Video (LBJ Library): @
* Transcript (LBJ Library): @
* "Independent South Viet Must Follow Any Peace Discussion, Says Johnson" (United Press International): @
* National Security Action Memorandum No. 328 (April 6): @ (U.S. State Department) and @ (LBJ Library) 


Wednesday-Thursday, March 24-25, 1965: Teach-in, University of Michigan

The first teach-in was almost an afterthought. The original plan, formulated by thirteen Michigan professors opposed to United States policy in Vietnam, was to cancel classes on March 24 as a protest measure. Their idea was roundly denounced by the University administration, Governor George Romney, and the state senate, which expressed its displeasure in a resolution. As the date of the scheduled "work moratorium" approached, moderates on the faculty proposed a compromise and the teach-in was born. Some 200 members of the Michigan faculty supported it, and 2,000 students attended night-long rallies in four campus auditoriums. Encouraged by the response, Michigan professors called colleagues at other institutions, and the movement was under way.

     -- From "Revolt of the Professors" (Erwin Knoll, The Saturday Review, June 19, 1965): @
     -- Photo from "Teach Your Children Well: 50th Anniversary of U-M Teach-In" (Alumni Association of the University of Michigan): @

* Summary ("Encyclopedia of the Sixties," 2012): @
* Summary ("The Spirit of the Sixties: The Making of Postwar Radicalism," James J. Farrell, 1997): @
* Summary (Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan): @
* Summary (The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto): @
* "Origins of the Teach-In" (College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, University of Michigan): @
* "40 Years Ago, the First Teach-In" (Rabbi Arthur Waskow, The Shalom Center, March 2005): @
* "Reflections on Protest" (Kenneth E. Boulding, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, October 1965): @
* "Students in a Ferment Chew Out the Nation" (Life magazine, April 30, 1965): @ 


1965: The miniskirt

Sensitive to the youthful revolt against established values, two designers in particular produced clothes which epitomized the 1960s look for women: Courreges in France and Mary Quant in Britain. Both expressed the spirit of the age and its desire for physical and social freedom in deceptively simple, pared-down garments with abbreviated skirts (christened by the British press "the mini") and, in Courreges' case, pants suits. Both created a complete look, with tights (essential with the mini), shoes, boots, hairstyles and even sunglasses and make-up. Quant appealed directly to the very young; Courreges, possibly because he was in essence a couture designer (having worked with Balenciega for eleven years before opening his own house in 1961), to a slightly more mature woman.
     -- From "Fashion in Costume, 1200-2000" (Joan Nunn, 2000): @
     -- Image from an advertisement for an Indiana department store in August 1965, showing just how quickly the look took hold throughout the United States

* Mary Quant page (Victoria and Albert Museum): @
* "Why Mary Quant's Swinging Sixties London Look Still Holds Sway" (Vogue, 2015): @
* Andre Courreges article (Victoria and Albert Museum): @
* "Andre Courreges: The Couture's Space Captain" (House of Retro): @
* Jacques Tiffeau article (Fashion Designer Encyclopedia): @
* "Skirts for Fall To Be Shorter" (United Press International, July 1964): @
* "Up, Up, Up Go the Skirts: The new look is the knee look -- but there's controversy" (Life magazine, December 18, 1964): @
* "The Lord of the Space Ladies: Andres Courreges is the new powerhouse of Paris Fashion" (Life magazine, May 21, 1965): @
* "Negro Women have the prettiest knees" (Jet magazine, July 8, 1965): @
* "The man who launched the miniskirt remains aloof" (Sydney Morning Herald, August 1969): @
* "On June 4, 1965, Puritan Fashion Co. launched Youthquake" (On This Day in Fashion): @
* "On September 1, 1965, Mary Quant introduced the miniskirt" (On This Day in Fashion): @
* Excerpt from "Fifty Years of Fashion: New Look to Now" (Valerie Steele, 1997): @
* Excerpt from "Tim Gunn's Fashion Bible" (2012): @ 


Thursday, March 18, 1965: First spacewalk

A Soviet cosmonaut squeezed out of history's highest orbiting manned satellite today and took man's first slowly somersaulting, free-floating swim in outer space. Then he returned to the cabin of his two-man spacecraft, the Voskhod 2, as the Soviet Union took another giant stride in the race for the moon. ... It was the second Soviet team flight in one space capsule, following a three-man, 16-orbit trip last October. It came only five days before America's first planned attempt to orbit a spacecraft with more than one man aboard. ... Alexei Leonov, 30, a chunky lieutenant colonel and a gifted artist, became the first man in history to step into outer space. 
     -- Associated Press: @
     -- Photo from

* "Learning to Spacewalk" (Leonov, for Air & Space magazine, January 2005): @
* " 'Our Walk in Space': The Russian Cosmonauts' Story of their bold first step" (Life magazine, May 14): @
* "Alexei Leonov: The artistic spaceman" (European Space Agency): @
* Short biography (International Space Hall of Fame): @
* Russian news report: @
* Black-and-white footage (French audio): @
* Black-and-white footage (no sound; from @
* Color footage: @
* Universal Newsreel (from @ 


Monday, March 15, 1965: LBJ and MLK speeches

WASHINGTON -- President Johnson, invoking the Negro civil rights hymn "We Shall Overcome," urged Congress Monday night to pass a voting rights bill and go on to end racial bigotry and injustice. Johnson warned that by trying to "hold on to the past" America would risk losing the future. An unusual rising ovation that greeted his emotional call for "no compromise" was one of many indications that Johnson's speech was a landmark in the civil rights movement.
     -- The Milwaukee Journal: @
     -- Photo by Cecil Stoughton

* Video and transcript (from LBJ Library): @

At Brown Chapel AME in Selma, Alabama, the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. speaks at an interfaith service for the Rev. James Reeb, who died March 11 from a beating two days earlier.
     -- Photo by Flip Schulke

* Audio (from @
* Transcript ( @ 


March 1965: Vietnam

Tuesday, March 2: Rolling Thunder
     Operation Rolling Thunder was a 44-month-long aerial bombardment campaign carried out against North Vietnam by the U.S. Air Force and Navy and the South Vietnamese air force. The operation was initiated by President Johnson on 2 March 1965 as a continuation of Operation Flaming Dart. The principal aims, the relative significance of which shifted over time, were to improve the morale of the South Vietnamese, persuade North Vietnam to end its aid to the Viet Cong, destroy North Vietnam's industry and transportation, and cut off the flow of men and supplies from North to South.
     -- From "Historical Dictionary of U.S. Diplomacy during the Cold War" (Martin Folly, 2014): @

* The Air War in North Vietnam: Rolling Thunder Begins, February-June 1965" (The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, 1971): @
* "The Air War Against North Vietnam" (U.S. Air Force, 1984): @
* "Rolling Thunder 1965: Anatomy of a Failure" (Col Dennis M. Drew, Air University, 1986): @
* "An Uncommon War: The U.S. Air Force in Southeast Asia" (Bernard C. Nalty, Air Force Historical Studies Office, 2015): @

Monday, March 8: Combat troops
     DA NANG, South Viet Nam, Monday -- Two combat-trained battalions of U.S. Marines began moving ashore today to defend vital U.S. jet air bases at this strategic seaport 80 miles from Communist North Viet Nam. The force of 3,500 Marines began debarking from ships lying off the coast under strict security measures to discourage any Viet Cong interference. They came ashore through pounding surf 10 miles north of Da Nang. ... The landing operation began at 9 a.m. (8 p.m. EST) after a delay of about an hour because of rough seas offshore. The air was hot and humid. ... The Marines are the first American ground troops to be ordered into potential direct combat positions against Viet Cong guerrillas and troops infiltrating from North Viet Nam.
     -- From United Press International: @
     -- Photo from "U.S. Marines in Vietnam: The Landing and the Buildup" (History and Museums Division, U.S. Marine Corps, 1978): @

* "Marines Land in Vietnam" (The Age; Melbourne, Australia): @
* "American Troops Enter the Ground War, March-July 1965" (The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, 1971): @
* "The Third Division in Vietnam" (Third Marine Division Association): @
* "50 Years Ago: Boots on the Ground in Vietnam" (The Saturday Evening Post, 2015): @


1965: Selma, Alabama

Chronology from "Centers of the Southern Struggle" (University Publications of America, 1988): @

Portraits of Selma and Montgomery

Links to the work of some of the photographers who chronicled the events of March 1965 in Alabama.

Note: The photo above comes from the website of the National Voting Rights Museum and Institute in Selma. I'm trying to find out who took it. Any information would be appreciated.

* Bob Adelman: @
* Archie E. Allen: @
* James Barker: @
* Morton Broffman: @
* Dan Budnik: @ 
* Frank Dandridge (search Getty Images for his name): @
* Bruce Davidson: @ 
* Bob Fletcher: @
* Matt Herron: @ and @ and @ ( 
* Dennis Hopper: @
* James Karales: @
* John Kouns: @ and @ (Syndic Literary Journal) and @ (Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement)
* Spider Martin: @
* Ivan Massar: @
* Charles Moore: @ (Kodak) and @ (The Red List)
* Glen Pearcy: @ and @
* John F. Phillips: @
* Steve Schapiro: @ (The New Yorker) and @ (Monroe Gallery) and @ (Schapiro's website)
* Flip Schulke: @
* Charles Shaw: @
* Robert Abbott Sengstacke: @
* Stephen Somerstein: @
* Allen Zak: @
* Alabama Department of Archives and History: @
* @
* Houston Chronicle (slideshow): @
* Getty Images (search for "Selma to Montgomery March" or similar terms): @
* Library of Congress: @ 


March 1965: 'The Negro Family: The Case for National Action'

Few pieces of social science research have stirred as much controversy or had as great an impact as 1965's "The Negro Family: The Case for National Action." The U.S. Department of Labor report, more commonly referred to as the Moynihan report after its author, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, focused on the deep roots of black poverty in the United States. Moynihan argued that the decline of the black nuclear family would significantly impede blacks' progress toward economic and social equality. Over the ensuing decades, the report has been hailed by some as prophetic and derided by others as a classic example of blaming the victim.
     -- "The Moynihan Report Revisited" (Urban Institute, June 2013): @

* Full text of report (U.S. Department of Labor): @
* PDF (Stanford University): @
* "Moynihan Report: The Negro Family Revisited" (project website): @
* "Moynihan of the Moynihan Report" (Thomas Meehan, New York Times, July 1966): @
* "A Troubled National Turns to Pat Moynihan: Idea Broker in the Race Crisis" (Life magazine, November 3, 1967, page 72): @
* "Freedom Is Not Enough: The Moynihan Report and America's Struggle over Black Family Life, from LBJ to Obama" (James T. Patterson, 2010): @
* "What the Left and Right Both Get Wrong About the Moynihan Report" (Peter-Christian Angier, The Atlantic magazine, 2014): @ 
* "Revisiting the Moynihan Report On Its 50th Anniversary" (EducationNext; 2015): @

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