The '60s at 50

7.14.2016

Wednesday, July 13 - Thursday, July 14: Murders in Chicago


A young killer forced his way into a quiet residential dormitory early Thursday, bound nine student nurses, then dragged them one by one into other rooms and methodically strangled or stabbed eith of them to death. The ninth escaped the killer's insatiable lust for blood by crouching in frozen terror under a bed.
     -- Associated Press: @

* Summary (Chicago Tribune): @
* Summary (www.history.com): @
* Summary (www.biography.com): @
* Chicago Tribune, July 14, 1966: @
* "Detailed Account of a Terrible Crime" (Chicago Tribune, July 23, 1966): @
* Life magazine (July 29, 1966): @
* Richard Speck obituary (New York Times, December 5, 1991): @
* "The Crime of the Century: Richard Speck and the Murders That Shocked the Nation" (Dennis L. Breo and William J. Martin, 2016): @
* Photos (murderpedia.org): @ 

7.01.2016

Friday, July 1, 1966: The end of Prohibition

Mississippi, the first state to ratify national prohibition in 1918, today ended the last statewide ban on liquor. Although liquor became legal at 12:01 a.m., it won't really be legal until a county votes itself wet -- which will take at least 16 days. Gov. Paul B. Johnson has vowed strict compliance with statewide enforcement of prohibition until such referendums are held. It was Johnson who called for legalization earlier this year, terming prohibition a farce.
     -- Associated Press: @

* 1962: "A tax on lawbreakers only" (Life magazine, May 11): @
* 1965: "Mississippi's dry -- in a wet sort of way" (Associated Press, January 21): @
* July 27, 1966: "Legal Booze Brings Joy to Thirsty Biloxi Tipplers" (AP): @
* August 6, 1966: First legal liquor store: @
* Wet/dry map (Alcoholic Beverage Control, Mississippi Department of Revenue): @
* Wet/dry map for beer and light wine (Alcoholic Beverage Control, Mississippi Department of Revenue): @
* "Forty Years of Legal Liquor: It's Mostly Ho-Hum" (Bill Minor, 2006): @
* "Mississippi Moonshine Politics" (Janice Branch Tracy, 2015): @ 

6.30.2016

July 1966: Black Panther


The Black Panther, the first African American superhero*, appeared in Marvel Comics' "Fanastic Four" #52 in 1966. Born as T'Challa in the fictional African land of Wakanda, his father, a tribal chief, was killed by a white Dutchman intent on stealing Wakanda's natural resources. T'Challa swore to avenge his father's death and traveled to the West to study science. He returned to Wakanda to rule as the Black Panther and transformed his homeland into a prosperous nation.
     -- From "Africana: the Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience" (edited by Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates Jr., 2005): @
     * Note: The Black Panther is often referred to as the first black superhero, as his origins are African rather than African-American.

* Summaries of Fantastic Four #52 and #53 (Marvel Masterworks): @ and @
* Summaries of Fantastic Four #52 and #53 (Marvel Database): @ and @
* Black Panther profile (Marvel.com): @
* Profile (Marvel Directory): @
* Profile (ComicBookDB.com): @
* Profile (Comic Vine): @
* "Everything You Need To Know About Black Panther Before Marvel's 'Civil War' " (io9.gizmodo.com, 2016): @
* Summary from "Icons of the American Comic Book: From Captain America to Wonder Woman" (2013): @
* "Marvel in the Civil Rights Era: A noble Panther, a gritty Cage" (Gary Phillips, 2012): @
* "Super Black: American Pop Culture and Black Superheroes" (Adilifu Nama, 2011): @ 
* Stan Lee website: @
* Jack Kirby Museum: @

6.28.2016

Tuesday, June 28 - Thursday, June 30, 1966: National Organization for Women


The largest feminist organization in the United States, NOW began when a group of representatives attending the Third National Conference of Commissions on the Status of Women became angered by their unsuccessful attempts to force the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to enforce federal regulations ending sex discrimination. Meeting with Betty Friedan, author of "The Feminine Mystique" and a guest speaker at the conference, the invited group of 28 women and men decided to establish a civil rights organization for women.
     -- From Records of the National Organization for Women, Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe University: @ and @
     -- Photo from October 29-30 organizing conference in Washington, D.C.: @ (Jewish Women's Archive)
     -- Photo key: @  (Lawrence Wilkinson)

* Summary of founding (NOW website): @
* Statement of Purpose (adopted October 29, 1966; NOW website): @
* "Honoring Our Founders and Pioneers" (NOW website): @
* Feminist Majority Foundation: @
* "Women's Movement, 1960-1990" (from "Encyclopedia of American Social Movements," 2015): @
* Summary from "The Social Movements Reader: Cases and Concepts" (2014): @
* Summary from "A Century of Women: The Most Influential Events in Twentieth-Century Women's History" (Deborah G. Felder, 2003): @
* Summary from "Encyclopedia of Women and Gender" (2002): @
* "Militant Women Rap Male Discrimination" (Associated Press, November 22, 1966): @
* Earlier post on Betty Friedan's "The Feminine Mystique" (February 1963): @

6.13.2016

Monday, June 13, 1966: Miranda v. Arizona

The Supreme Court laid down today a strict set of guidelines for police investigations -- including a rule that if a suspect "is alone and indicates in any manner that he does not wish to be interrogated, the police may not question him." Before questioning begins, the prisoner must be told of his right to remain silent and to have a lawyer at his side, Chief Justice Earl Warren said for a 5-4 court. Also, Warren said, the suspecte need not request a lawyer in order to have one. And, if he cannot afford one, counsel must be provided "prior to any investigation."
-- Associated Press: @

* "High Court Puts New Curb on Powers of the Police to Interrogate Suspects" (New York Times): @
* Summary (PBS): @
* Summary (Arizona Republic): @
* Podcast (www.uscourts.gov): @
* "How 'You Have the Right to Remain Silent' Became the Standard Miranda Warning" (Slate, 2014): @
* "Famed Miranda Dies In Game-Stabbing" (Associated Press; story from February 2, 1976; Miranda was killed January 31): @
* Earlier post on arrest of Ernesto Miranda (March 13, 1963; includes other resources): @ 

6.12.2016

The Beatles' 'Butcher Cover'



March 25
Photo session with Robert Whitaker in Chelsea, London.
* Summary from The Beatles Bible: @
* Photos from session and album cover images (www.rarebeatles.com): @
* Robert Whitaker Photography: @
* More Beatles photos from Robert Whitaker (Morrison Hotel Gallery): @ 

June 3-4
Album cover photo appears in music advertisements.
* Summary from www.rarebeatles.com: @

June 11
Photo appears on cover of Disc and Music Echo.
* Summary from www.rarebeatles.com: @

June 14
Capitol Records sends letter to reviewers, telling them the cover is being replaced.
* Summary from abouthebeatles.com: @

June 15
Release date in United States.
* Summary from The Beatles Bible: @
* "Capitol Records has withdrawn the cover of the latest Beatles recording because disc jockeys complained it as offensive." (United Press International): @

June 25
* "Beatles LP Makes Cap. Run for Cover" (Billboard magazine, page 3): @
* Also in the issue is a full-page ad with the replacement cover (page 41).

Other resources
* Discography and Price Guide (www.rarebeatles.com): @
* www.thebutchercover.com: @
* www.thebeatlesbutchershop.com: @
* "Who Butchered the Beatles?" (www.snopes.com): @
* "Who Butchered the Beatles?" (www.recmusicbeatles.com): @
* "Who Butchered Who?" (www.popularmusic.info): @ 

6.08.2016

Wednesday, June 8, 1966: NFL-AFL merger


The National Football League and American Football League announced plans Wednesday for a merger into a giant circuit of 26 teams in 25 cities under a single commissioner. The commissioner will be Pete Rozelle of the NFL, who, according to the joint announcement, will administer all inter-league business under a structure similar to major league baseball. The actual merger will not take place until 1970 after existing contracts expire. 
-- Story by Associated Press: @. Photo of Pete Rozelle by Bob Gomel.

* Summary from www.history.com: @
* "How Merger Will Operate" (Associated Press): @
* "Here's How It Happened" (Tex Schramm, Sports Illustrated, June 20, 1966): @
* "Birth of the new NFL: How the 1966 NFL/AFL Transformed Pro Football" (Larry Felser, 2008): @
* "The AFL-NFL merger was almost booted ... by a kicker" (Ken Rappoport, NFL.com, 2009): @
* "The American Football League's Foolish Club" (Jim Morrison, Smithsonian magazine, 2010): @
* NFL history by decade, 1961-1970 (www.nfl.com): @
* "The Merger: Forming the Conferences" (video, www.nfl.com): @
* www.remembertheafl.com: @
* afl-football.50webs.com: @

6.07.2016

Tuesday, June 7, 1966: 'The people have spoken ... the bastards.'

Dick Tuck -- longtime Democratic Party strategist and legendary political prankster -- finishes third in the Democratic primary for a seat in the California State Senate. After his defeat, he says, memorably:

The people have spoken ... the bastards.

Note: The quotation has since been reprinted with slight variations. The wording and punctuation are taken from Tuck's website.


* www.dicktuck.com: @
* Entry from The Museum of Hoaxes: @
* "Three 'Names' Win in California" (Associated Press, June 1966): @
* "Nixon May Not Have Tuck To Kick Around Anymore" (Associated Press, October 1973): @
* "Nixon, Tuck: Somebody's Not Leveling" (New York magazine, June 1977): @
* 1996 C-SPAN interview: @
* 2016 segment from Arizona Public Media: @
* "Fear and Loathing in America: The Brutal Odyssey of an Outlaw Journalist" (Hunter S. Thompson, 2000; Tuck is mentioned several times): @
* "Presidential Campaign Activities of 1972" (U.S. Senate hearings; Tuck is mentioned several times): @
* "The Nixon Tapes: 1973" (Douglas Brinkley & Luke A. Nichter, 2015): @

6.06.2016

Monday, June 6, 1966: Robert Kennedy's 'Ripple of Hope' speech


CAPE TOWN, South Africa -- U.S. Senator Robert Kennedy branded apartheid as one of the evils of the world Monday night in a speech certain to anger the South African Government. The 40-year-old New York Democrat, brother of the late President John F. Kennedy, was speaking to the multi-racial National Union of South African Students, which invited him to South Africa, at Cape Town University. Many observers believed this to be the most important speech made by an visitor to South Africa, where race separation is official policy, since a former British prime minister, Harold Macmillan, was here in 1960.

The speech's most famous passage: 

Each time a man stands up for an ideal, or acts to improve the lot of others, or strikes out against injustice, he sends forth a tiny ripple of hope, and crossing each other from a million different centers of energy and daring those ripples build a current which can sweep down the mightiest walls of oppression and resistance.


Note: The quotation is inscribed at Kennedy's gravesite at Arlington National Cemetery. Photo: @

-- Story by Reuters: @; photo taken June 8 in Soweto by Alf Kumalo

* Text and audio (JFK Library): @
* Summary (RFK Legacy Education Project): @
* Summary from "American Voices: An Encyclopedia of American Orators" (Bernard K. Duffy and Richard W. Leeman, 2005): @
* "Kennedy hits at apartheid" (The Glasgow Herald): @
* "50th anniversary of Robert Kennedy's 'Ripple of Hope' speech (University of Cape Town): @
* "50 Years Later, South Africa Still Feels RFK's Message of Hope" (Voice of America): @ 
* "RFK in the Land of Apartheid: A Ripple of Hope" (film by Larry Shore and Tami Gold, 2009; site includes several links to other resources): @
* Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice & Human Rights: @

6.05.2016

Sunday, June 5 - Sunday, June 26, 1966: March Against Fear

Thursday, June 1: New York
     James Meredith, whose admittance to the University of Mississippi touched off riots in 1962, will set out on a 220-mile "voter registration march" into Jackson, Miss., Sunday as an example to fear-ridden fellow Negroes. -- United Press International: @


▲ Sunday, June 5: Memphis, Tennessee
     Declaring war on fear, James Meredith strolled boldly toward Mississippi on a civil rights march Sunday and placed his faith with "a million Negroes." Meredith, the man who cracked segregation barriers at the University of Mississippi, left downtown Memphis with two hiking companions and plans to reach the Mississippi state capitol in Jackson in about two weeks. "There are two purposes for this," Meredith said, "first, we want to tear down the fear that grips Negroes in Mississippi, and we want to encourage the 450,000 Negroes remaining unregistered (as voters) in Mississippi." -- Associated Press: @. Photo by Bill Hudson.
* "James Meredith Starts His March to Jackson" (AP): @
* "Meredith Begins Mississippi Walk to Combat Fear" (New York Times): @





▲ Monday, June 6: South of Hernando, Mississippi
     Negro James Meredith was shot and wounded by a forest sniper Monday as he trudged down a lonely highway on the second day of his march through Mississippi. Doctors said Meredith would survive the shotgun ambush. Authorities said James Norvell, a short, pudgy white man from Memphis, admitted bushwhacking Meredith and was charged with assault and battery with intent to murder. -- United Press International: @. Photos by Jack Thornell.
* "Meredith Is Shot In Back On Walk Into Mississippi" (New York Times): @
* Life magazine (June 17): @
* Jet magazine (June 23): @
* "Capturing history: Shooting of James Meredith" (Chuck Cook, 2016): @
* "Jack Thornell: 'I was thinking my career is over. I will resign. Or be fired' " (The Independent, 2013): @
Note: The Associated Press initially reported that Meredith was killed. "The Meredith Story, June 6, 1966" (UPI): @
Note: Aubrey James Norvell later pleaded guilty and would serve a year and a half in prison.

Tuesday, June 7: Hernando
      Three major civil rights figures, shoved into single file by Mississippi highway patrolmen, resumed James H. Meredith's "march against fear" Tuesday. The march, picking up new members as it straggled along U.S. 51, started at the spot where shotgun blasts felled Meredith, 33, who cracked the racial barrier at the University of Mississippi in 1962. The leaders were Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference; Floyd McKissick, director of the Congress of Racial Equality; and Stokely Carmichael, new chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. -- Associated Press: @.
* "Negroes Pledge Massive March" (AP): @
* "Leaders Join for Miss. March" (The Southern Courier, June 11-12): @


▲ Thursday, June 9: Near Como
     A little boy tootles "Dixie" on a clarinet and a girl beside him waves a Confederate flag as marchers led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. approach along the shoulder of U.S. 51 near Como, Mississippi. -- Photo and caption by Associated Press.


▲ Saturday, June 11: Batesville
     El Fondren, resident of Batesville, Miss., who claims to be 106 years old, is hoisted to the shoulders of a crowd of Negroes and whites in Batesville today after he registered to vote for the first time. He registered as about 300 marchers in the Memphis-to-Jackson trek stopped for a brief demonstration before going on. -- Photo by Bob Fitch. Caption by Associated Press.
* "Marchers 'Against Fear' Stage Registration Rally" (AP): @
* "Picturing Freedom" (Aram Goudsouzian, 2016): @
* News footage: @


▲ Tuesday, June 14-Wednesday, June 15: Grenada
     The Mississippi marchers jubilantly moved toward the lush cotton country Wednesday, leaving hundreds of newly registered Negro voters behind and courthouse restrooms that no longer differentiate between white and Negro. They also may have picked up some poison ivy. -- Associated Press: @. Photo of the Rev. Martin Luther King speaking at Grenada's Jefferson Davis memorial by Charmian Reading.
* "Rain Falls to Dampen Ardor of Civil Righters" (AP): @
* "Marchers Spend Night At Grenada" (AP): @
* "March Doubles Voter Registration Along Route Through Mississippi" (The Southern Courier, June 18-19): @ 
Note: The march led to a months-long civil rights campaign in Grenada that eventually included the desegregation of city schools.
* "Grenada Mississippi, 1966: Chronology of a Movement" (Bruce Hartford, Civil Rights Movement Veterans): @
* "The Civil Rights Documentation Project: The Grenada Movement" (University of Southern Mississippi): @
* "Making a stand in Grenada" (Alan Bean, Friends of Justice): @
* "Return to Grenada" (Pete Eikenberry, Federal Bar Council Quarterly): @




▲  Thursday, June 16: Greenwood
     "We want black power! We want black power!" the 1,000 Negroes chanted it again and again. On the back of a truck, facing them on a lighted baseball field Thursday night, stood Stokely Carmichael, head of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. He and two others in the Mississippi march had just come from seven hours in jail. "Everybody owns our neighborhood except us," Carmichael roared. "We outnumber the whites in this county; we want black power. That's what we want. Black power!" Carmichael's speech climaxed the most troubled day of the march since James H. Meredith, the first Negro known to have graduated from the University of Mississippi, was shot and wounded June 6. -- Associated Press: @. Photos of Carmichael's arrest (his back is to camera) and speech by Bob Fitch.
* Carmichael on CBS' "Face the Nation" (June 19, 1966): @
* " 'Guns, Bullets Can't Stop Us,' King Tells Miss. Negroes" (Jet magazine, June 30): @ 
* "March's Leaders Argue, Non-Violence or Arms?" (The Southern Courier, June 25-26): @
* "Black Power - White Backlash" (CBS, September 27, 1966): @
* "The First 'Black Power' flyer?" (Eric Etheridge, Breach of Peace): @
* Interview with David Dawley (Washington University, 1989): @
* "The Basis of Black Power" (SNCC, 1966): @ 
* Carmichael's October 29 speech at U.C. Berkeley (American Rhetoric): @
* "Stokely Carmichael, 'Black Power' " (Kalen M.A. Churcher, Niagara University): @
* "Ready for Revolution: The Life and Struggles of Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture)": (Stokely Carmichael and Michael Thelwell, 2003): @
* "Waiting 'Til the Midnight Hour: A Narrative History of Black Power in America" (Peniel E. Joseph, 2007): @
* "Stokely Carmichael, Black Power and the Age of Political Repression: Why Did America's Ruling Elites Declare War on the Black Movement?" (Abayomi Azikiwe, Centre for Research on Globalization, 2016): @ 


▲  Tuesday, June 21: Philadelphia
     A civil rights leader said Tuesday night his group traded a volley of bullets with unknown assailants outside their headquarters in a gun battle he called a "siege." Earlier, a memorial march led by the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. in honor of three slain civil rights workers erupted in a stone throwing, fist swinging battle. -- Milwaukee Sentinel: @
-- Photo by Associated Press. Caption reads: Dr. Martin Luther King, left, confronts Neshoba County Deputy Sheriff Cecil Price at the County Jail in Philadelphia, Mississippi on June 21, 1966 as Dr. King and other African American leaders arrived to post bond for jailed Rev. Clint Collier, who was arrested on trafic charges. The encounter came after a violence-marked memorial march in Philadelphia which Dr. King led in memory of three slain civil rights workers.
* "Neighborhood Sealed Off in Mississippi" (AP): @
Note: In October 1967, Price would be convicted for his role in the 1964 deaths of Andrew Goodman, James Chaney and Michael Schwerner. He would serve four years in federal prison.


▲ Thursday, June 23: Canton
     Guns at the ready, Mississippi state troopers move in Thursday on freedom marchers, already scrambling away from tear gas fumes in a schoolyard in Canton, Miss. The troopers tossed the tear gas canisters among the 2,000 marchers as they set up a sleeping tent in the schoolyard in defiance of an order by town authorities forbidding them to use the grounds. -- Photo by Charles Kelly. Caption by United Press International.
* "Marchers Gassed" (AP): @
* "Tear Gas Routs Dixie Marchers" (Milwaukee Journal): @

Friday-Saturday, June 24-25: Tougaloo and Canton
     Chilled by dissension and James H. Meredith's coolness, the Mississippi march to promote Negro voter registration stood at the last lap today. Meredith arrived in Tougaloo on Friday night after ignoring a rally in Canton, 16 miles to the north, where he was to receive a hero's ovation. ... Disappointed when he found that the march had proceeded from Canton to Tougaloo before his arrival, Meredith said he tentatively planned to march the 16 miles on his own today. -- Associated Press: @




▲ Sunday, June 26: Jackson
     The long and turbulent Mississippi march has ended with James H. Meredith -- who started it as a "journey against fear" -- saying the "governor and every other person is going to pay attention to the Negro. The system of white supremacy will reign no longer," Meredith told a heavily guarded rally behind the imposing State Capitol Building Sunday. Some 16,000 persons, most of them Negroes, flowed through Jackson streets to jam into a portion of the Capitol grounds and adjacent areas. -- Associated Press: @Photos of James Meredith and crowd by Bob Fitch.
* "Mississippi March Ends With Massive Rally in Jackson" (St. Petersburg Times): @
* News footage of Meredith speaking: @
* "Civil Rights Groups to Push Work in Areas March Passed Through" (The Southern Courier, July 2-3): @
* "Divided On Tactics, Leaders Agree March A Success" (Jet magazine, July 14): @
jamesmeredith1962.blogspot.com: @

Resources

-- Summaries
* PBS: @
* University of North Carolina: @
* Jo Freeman: @
* Federal Highway Administration, Department of Transportation (see "March Against Fear" section): @

-- Books
* "Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference" (David J. Garrow, 1986): @ 
* "Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi" (John Dittmer, 1994): @
* "Society of Former Special Agents of the FBI" (1998): @
* "Bloody Lowndes: Civil Rights and Black Power in Alabama's Black Belt" (Hasan Kwame Jeffries, 2010): @
* "James Meredith: Warrior and the America That Created Him" (Meredith Coleman McGee, 2013): @
* "Down to the Crossroads: Civil Rights, Black Power, and the Meredith March Against Fear" (Aram Goudsouzian, 2014): @
* "At the Crossroads of Fear and Freedom: The Fight for Social and Educational Justice" (Robert L. Green, 2015): @

-- Photos
* Bob Fitch: @
* Jim Lucas: @
* Jim Peppler: @
* John F. Phillips: @
* Flip Schulke: @
* Getty Images: @
* Walter P. Reuther Library: @

-- Other
* March map (Facts on File): @
* The Southern Courier archives: @ 

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