The '60s at 50


Friday, October 7, 1966: Study of UFOs

The Air Force announced today the University of Colorado has been chosen to undertake independent investigations of reports on unidentified flying objects. Air Force Secretary Harold Brown said the university is being awarded a research agreement of about $300,000 "to analyze phenomena associated with UFO sightings."
     The university, located at Boulder, Colo., will also make recommendations on the Air Force's methods of investigation and evaluating flying saucer reports, a program now known as Project Blue Book, dating back to 1948.
     * "University of Colorado Will Investigate UFOs" (Associated Press): @
     * Image from (Michigan sightings, 1966): @

* April 5, 1966, hearing by Armed Services Committee, U.S. House of Representatives: @
* "Facts About Unidentified Flying Objects" (Science Policy Research Division, Library of Congress, May 5, 1966): @
* "Unidentified Flying Objects Research Guide" (Naval History and Heritage Command): @
* "The CIA's role in the Study of UFOs, 1947-1990" (CIA): @
* "Congressional Hearings on UFOs" ( @
* "Ford Press Releases -- UFO, 1966" (Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library & Museum): @
* Journal of UFO History (November-December 2004): @
* "The 1966 UFO Chronology" (National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena): @
* "Ann Arbor vs. the flying saucers" (Michigan Today, 2014): @
* "The Great Michigan UFO Chase of 1966" ( @
* "Unidentified Flying Objects -- Project Blue Book" (National Archives): @
* Project Blue Book Archive: @ 


1966: The beginnings of 'tan, rested and ready'

October 1966: 'Tanned, fit, relaxed' 
     * "Nixon on the Stump -- An Old Timer at 53" (New York Times, October 3, 1966): @
     * Excerpt from "Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America" (Rick Perlstein, 2008): @

January 1970: 'Tanned, rested and ready' 
     "Now, on the eve of his 57th birthday, Richard Nixon was tanned, rested and ready to leave California's sun for the snow and subfreezing temperature of Washington." (Newsweek): @

     * Other uses of "tanned, rested and ready" (from @

July 1987: 'Tan, rested and ready' 
     * "Nixon, North Hot Sellers" (Spokane Spokesman-Review, July 11, 1987): @ 
     * "After Nixon and Reagan, Young Republicans Face '88 with Uncertainty" (New York Times, July 11): @ 


A note to readers

The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, like the Miami News before it (as well as other papers) is no longer available on Through the years several blog posts have included links to Milwaukee/Miami stories. If you come across one, drop me a line and I will try to re-source it. Thanks.


Monday, September 12, 1966: 'The Monkees'

     Imagine the Marx Brothers as a long-haired rock and roll group, who make a movie called "A Hard Day's Night" to be shown on the "Hullabaloo" TV series. That, friends, is the briefest way to describe The Monkees!
     Filmed at the pell-mell pace of teenage existence, photographed with some offbeat movie-making techniques, the program stars a group of three Americans and one English boy who never saw each other before the series.
     The plot? The freewheeling description by NBC puts it this way: "The Monkees quartet play dates, but are more often 'at liberty,' where they must conquer such foes as automation, unemployment, longhair music, landlords, rival musicians, strict parents and fickle girlfriends."
     -- Summary from TV Week, September 1966
     -- Image from TV Guide (via

* Official website: @
* www.monkeeslivealmanac: @
* @
* Album reviews ( @
* TV series ( @
* " 'The Monkees' broke the fourth wall of 1960s TV" ( @ 


Tuesday, September 6, 1966: 'Star Trek'

The science-fiction series' first televised episode, "The Man Trap," premieres on Canada's CTV, two days before its American debut on NBC.
     -- Image from TV Guide, September 10-16, 1966

* Summary (from Memory Alpha): @
* Summary (from @
* Summary (from @
* Script (from @
* Full episode (from @
* "TV: Spies, Space and the Stagestruck" (from The New York Times, September 16, 1966): @
* "Original 'Star Trek' Reviewers Just Didn't Get It" (from, 2014): @ 


September 1966: 'Turn on, tune in, drop out'

     Though he had used the phrase earlier, Timothy Leary's mantra of enlightenment through psychedelic drugs (especially LSD) and unconventional lifestyles starts to become a well-known phrase in September.
      Above is Leary's definition of the phrase, from the September 20, 1966 edition of The New York Times: @
     Note: "The Dictionary of Modern Proverbs" also lists a usage from the April 15-May 1 edition of The East Village Other newspaper: @


* "Turn On/Tune In/Drop Out" (Berkeley Barb, June 24): @ 

* Leary interview with Playboy magazine: @
* Cover of Datebook magazine: @
* "Leary Seeks LSD Faith, Needs Court Authorization" (Associated Press, September 20): @
* "Dr. Leary's Formula: Turn On, Tune In, Drop Out" (The Village Voice, September 29): @

* "The Politics, Ethics and Meaning of Marijuana" (Leary in The Marijuana Papers," 1966): @
* "Turn On, Tune In, Drop Out" (spoken-word album by Leary, 1966): @
* Listen to album: @
* Listen to 1967 version of album: @
* "Turn On, Tune In, Drop Out" (1967 film by Jerry Abrams): @
* "Legend of a Mind: Timothy Leary & LSD" (Pop History Dig): @ 


August 1966: The Beatles

     The album was released on August 5 in Britain and August 8 in the United States.
* Summary from @
* Summary from The Beatles Bible: @
* "UK Album Release" (The Beatles Bible): @
* "U.S. Album Release" (The Beatles Bible): @
* "The Beatles: U.S. vs. UK Album Guide" (Ultimate Classic Rock): @
* Album review (Kevin Courrier, Critics At Large): @
* Album review (Scott Plagenhoef, Pitchfork): @
* "Classic Album Dissection" ("Sound Opinions," 2006): @
* "The Kinks vs. The Beatles: Ray Davies Thought 'Revolver' was Garbage" ( @
* "How I drew a pop art masterpiece for the Beatles" (The Guardian, 2016): @
* " 'Revolver': How the Beatles Reimagined Rock 'n' Roll" (Robert Rodriguez, 2012): @

"We're more popular than Jesus now"
* Post from March 4, 1966, when the story was originally published in the London Evening Standard: @

Candlestick Park, San Francisco
     The band's August 29 show marked their last live performance until their rooftop concert in London on January 30, 1969.
* Summary from The Beatles Bible: @
* "The Beatles at Candlestick in 1966: An oral history from the fans" (San Francisco Chronicle, 2014): @
* "Listen to cassette recording of The Beatles' final concert at Candlestick Park" (Consequence of Sound): @ 


Monday, August 1, 1966: University of Texas Tower shooting

A puff of smoke is visible at the University of Texas Tower during the sniper attack on August 1, 1966, by Charles Whitman. (Texas Student Publications photo by Richard Kidd; courtesy of the Barker Texas History Center)

Charlotte Darehshori, then a secretary in the office of the dean of graduate studies, crouching behind the base of a flagpole in a grassy area just south of the Tower. She was trapped nearly 1 1/2 hours by the sniper fire. The photograph was one of the first transmitted from the Tower sniping incident and was one of the most widely published photographs from the incident. (Staff photo by Tom Lankes, American-Statesman)
     -- Photos from Austin American-Statesman archives: @

A crazed student went on an 80-minute campus rampage with an armful of weapons Monday in the worst mass killing in U.S. history. He killed 15 persons, including his mother and his wife, and gunned down 30 others before a shaken off-duty policeman shot him dead atop the 27-story University of Texas tower.
     -- United Press International: @

* Stories from Austin American-Statesman: @
* Summary (Finding Dulcinea): @
* Short biography of Charles Whitman (Texas State Historical Association): @
* Resources (Austin History Center): @
* "Texas Sniper Kills 15, Wounds 31, Then Slain" (Associated Press, published August 2, 1966): @
* "Campus Sniper Slays 13, Wounds 30" (UPI, August 2, 1966): @ 
* "Death Spree Carefully Planned, Executed" (UPI, August 3, 1966): @
* Life magazine (August 12, 1966): @
* "A Sniper in the Tower: The Charles Whitman Murders" (Gary M. Lavergne, 1997): @
* "University of Texas reopens tower's deck" (Associated Press, September 15, 1999): @
* "Sniper 66" (2006 documentary by Whitney Milam) first of 5 parts: @ (other 4 parts also available on YouTube)
* "96 Minutes" (Pamela Colloff, Texas Monthly, 2006): @
* A Buried Memory is Preserved: The Unborn Victim of a Texas Sniper's Shot in 1966" (Reeve Hamilton, New York Times, 2014): @
* Fifty years after the first campus massacre, a question lingers: Who killed the killer?" (Molly Hennessy-Fiske, Los Angeles Times, 2016): @
* "Tower" (2016 documentary): @


Wednesday, July 13 - Thursday, July 14: Murders in Chicago

A young killer forced his way into a quiet residential dormitory early Thursday, bound nine student nurses, then dragged them one by one into other rooms and methodically strangled or stabbed eith of them to death. The ninth escaped the killer's insatiable lust for blood by crouching in frozen terror under a bed.
     -- Associated Press: @

* Summary (Chicago Tribune): @
* Summary ( @
* Summary ( @
* Chicago Tribune, July 14, 1966: @
* "Detailed Account of a Terrible Crime" (Chicago Tribune, July 23, 1966): @
* Life magazine (July 29, 1966): @
* Richard Speck obituary (New York Times, December 5, 1991): @
* "The Crime of the Century: Richard Speck and the Murders That Shocked the Nation" (Dennis L. Breo and William J. Martin, 2016): @
* Photos ( @ 


Friday, July 1, 1966: The end of Prohibition

Mississippi, the first state to ratify national prohibition in 1918, today ended the last statewide ban on liquor. Although liquor became legal at 12:01 a.m., it won't really be legal until a county votes itself wet -- which will take at least 16 days. Gov. Paul B. Johnson has vowed strict compliance with statewide enforcement of prohibition until such referendums are held. It was Johnson who called for legalization earlier this year, terming prohibition a farce.
     -- Associated Press: @

* 1962: "A tax on lawbreakers only" (Life magazine, May 11): @
* 1965: "Mississippi's dry -- in a wet sort of way" (Associated Press, January 21): @
* July 27, 1966: "Legal Booze Brings Joy to Thirsty Biloxi Tipplers" (AP): @
* August 6, 1966: First legal liquor store: @
* Wet/dry map (Alcoholic Beverage Control, Mississippi Department of Revenue): @
* Wet/dry map for beer and light wine (Alcoholic Beverage Control, Mississippi Department of Revenue): @
* "Forty Years of Legal Liquor: It's Mostly Ho-Hum" (Bill Minor, 2006): @
* "Mississippi Moonshine Politics" (Janice Branch Tracy, 2015): @ 


July 1966: Black Panther

The Black Panther, the first African American superhero*, appeared in Marvel Comics' "Fanastic Four" #52 in 1966. Born as T'Challa in the fictional African land of Wakanda, his father, a tribal chief, was killed by a white Dutchman intent on stealing Wakanda's natural resources. T'Challa swore to avenge his father's death and traveled to the West to study science. He returned to Wakanda to rule as the Black Panther and transformed his homeland into a prosperous nation.
     -- From "Africana: the Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience" (edited by Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates Jr., 2005): @
     * Note: The Black Panther is often referred to as the first black superhero, as his origins are African rather than African-American.

* Summaries of Fantastic Four #52 and #53 (Marvel Masterworks): @ and @
* Summaries of Fantastic Four #52 and #53 (Marvel Database): @ and @
* Black Panther profile ( @
* Profile (Marvel Directory): @
* Profile ( @
* Profile (Comic Vine): @
* "Everything You Need To Know About Black Panther Before Marvel's 'Civil War' " (, 2016): @
* Summary from "Icons of the American Comic Book: From Captain America to Wonder Woman" (2013): @
* "Marvel in the Civil Rights Era: A noble Panther, a gritty Cage" (Gary Phillips, 2012): @
* "Super Black: American Pop Culture and Black Superheroes" (Adilifu Nama, 2011): @ 
* Stan Lee website: @
* Jack Kirby Museum: @


Tuesday, June 28 - Thursday, June 30, 1966: National Organization for Women

The largest feminist organization in the United States, NOW began when a group of representatives attending the Third National Conference of Commissions on the Status of Women became angered by their unsuccessful attempts to force the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to enforce federal regulations ending sex discrimination. Meeting with Betty Friedan, author of "The Feminine Mystique" and a guest speaker at the conference, the invited group of 28 women and men decided to establish a civil rights organization for women.
     -- From Records of the National Organization for Women, Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe University: @ and @
     -- Photo from October 29-30 organizing conference in Washington, D.C.: @ (Jewish Women's Archive)
     -- Photo key: @  (Lawrence Wilkinson)

* Summary of founding (NOW website): @
* Statement of Purpose (adopted October 29, 1966; NOW website): @
* "Honoring Our Founders and Pioneers" (NOW website): @
* Feminist Majority Foundation: @
* "Women's Movement, 1960-1990" (from "Encyclopedia of American Social Movements," 2015): @
* Summary from "The Social Movements Reader: Cases and Concepts" (2014): @
* Summary from "A Century of Women: The Most Influential Events in Twentieth-Century Women's History" (Deborah G. Felder, 2003): @
* Summary from "Encyclopedia of Women and Gender" (2002): @
* "Militant Women Rap Male Discrimination" (Associated Press, November 22, 1966): @
* Earlier post on Betty Friedan's "The Feminine Mystique" (February 1963): @


Monday, June 13, 1966: Miranda v. Arizona

The Supreme Court laid down today a strict set of guidelines for police investigations -- including a rule that if a suspect "is alone and indicates in any manner that he does not wish to be interrogated, the police may not question him." Before questioning begins, the prisoner must be told of his right to remain silent and to have a lawyer at his side, Chief Justice Earl Warren said for a 5-4 court. Also, Warren said, the suspecte need not request a lawyer in order to have one. And, if he cannot afford one, counsel must be provided "prior to any investigation."
-- Associated Press: @

* "High Court Puts New Curb on Powers of the Police to Interrogate Suspects" (New York Times): @
* Summary (PBS): @
* Summary (Arizona Republic): @
* Podcast ( @
* "How 'You Have the Right to Remain Silent' Became the Standard Miranda Warning" (Slate, 2014): @
* "Famed Miranda Dies In Game-Stabbing" (Associated Press; story from February 2, 1976; Miranda was killed January 31): @
* Earlier post on arrest of Ernesto Miranda (March 13, 1963; includes other resources): @ 


The Beatles' 'Butcher Cover'

March 25
Photo session with Robert Whitaker in Chelsea, London.
* Summary from The Beatles Bible: @
* Photos from session and album cover images ( @
* Robert Whitaker Photography: @
* More Beatles photos from Robert Whitaker (Morrison Hotel Gallery): @ 

June 3-4
Album cover photo appears in music advertisements.
* Summary from @

June 11
Photo appears on cover of Disc and Music Echo.
* Summary from @

June 14
Capitol Records sends letter to reviewers, telling them the cover is being replaced.
* Summary from @

June 15
Release date in United States.
* Summary from The Beatles Bible: @
* "Capitol Records has withdrawn the cover of the latest Beatles recording because disc jockeys complained it as offensive." (United Press International): @

June 25
* "Beatles LP Makes Cap. Run for Cover" (Billboard magazine, page 3): @
* Also in the issue is a full-page ad with the replacement cover (page 41).

Other resources
* Discography and Price Guide ( @
* @
* @
* "Who Butchered the Beatles?" ( @
* "Who Butchered the Beatles?" ( @
* "Who Butchered Who?" ( @ 


Wednesday, June 8, 1966: NFL-AFL merger

The National Football League and American Football League announced plans Wednesday for a merger into a giant circuit of 26 teams in 25 cities under a single commissioner. The commissioner will be Pete Rozelle of the NFL, who, according to the joint announcement, will administer all inter-league business under a structure similar to major league baseball. The actual merger will not take place until 1970 after existing contracts expire. 
-- Story by Associated Press: @. Photo of Pete Rozelle by Bob Gomel.

* Summary from @
* "How Merger Will Operate" (Associated Press): @
* "Here's How It Happened" (Tex Schramm, Sports Illustrated, June 20, 1966): @
* "Birth of the new NFL: How the 1966 NFL/AFL Transformed Pro Football" (Larry Felser, 2008): @
* "The AFL-NFL merger was almost booted ... by a kicker" (Ken Rappoport,, 2009): @
* "The American Football League's Foolish Club" (Jim Morrison, Smithsonian magazine, 2010): @
* NFL history by decade, 1961-1970 ( @
* "The Merger: Forming the Conferences" (video, @
* @
* @

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