The '60s at 50

7.06.2015

Friday, July 16, 1965: The Southern Courier


The Southern Courier was established in 1965 by college students and recent graduates to cover the civil rights movement and President Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty in the American South. Despite the paper's small size and relatively short publication life, The Southern Courier fulfilled an important and sorely needed role in the post-1965 South by providing African Americans and sympathetic whites with a broader sense of community in the fight for equality. The Southern Courier offered a more complex view of race relations to the general public.
     -- From Encyclopedia of Alabama (full summary: @)

* Southern Courier site (includes links to PDFs of every issue): @
* Jim Peppler Southern Courier Photograph Collection (Alabama Department of Archives and History): @
* Summary from Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement: @
* "A Personal Historian's Memories of the American Civil Rights Era: Birmingham Alabama 1967" (Joan Tornow, 2015): @
* "Civil Rights: Student Editors from Harvard Plan an Independent Newspaper" (Nashua Telegraph, May 5, 1965): @
* "New Civil Rights Paper Covers Southern Issues" (The Michigan Daily, July 1, 1965): @
* "The Southern Courier: A Study of Civil Rights Journalism in Alabama" (Nieman Reports, December 1966, page 15): @
* Excerpt from "Fighting the Devil in Dixie: How Civil Rights Activists Took On the Ku Klux Klan" (Wayne Greenhaw, 2011): @ 

7.05.2015

Wednesday, July 14, 1965: Mariner 4's photos of Mars


Man's first closeup picture of Mars shows a remarkably earth-like desert area -- but gives no hint of an answer to whether they mysterious planet could harbor life. The poorly defined picture snapped as Mariner 4 flew within 10,500 miles of Mars Wednesday was released Thursday night while the U.S. spacecraft was relaying its second picture across 134 million miles of space. Almost half the picture showed only the dark void of space, with but a small portion of the edge of Mars visible in the streaked and smudged frame. (From The Associated Press; full story: @)
     -- Image from NASA; all Mariner 4 photos: @

* "Mariner 4 Makes Flight Past Mars" (The New York Times): @
* Flight details (NASA): @
* "Mariner to Mercury, Venus and Mars" (Jet Propulsion Laboratory): @
* "Mariner 4: First Spacecraft to Mars" (Space.com): @
* "Blast from the past: Mariner 4's images of Mars" (The Planetary Society, 2012): @
* "Looking back at Mariner images of Mars" (The Planetary Society, 2013): @
* Hand-colored image: @ (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and @ (Dan Goods)

6.29.2015

Tuesday, June 29, 1965: 'Murder in Mississippi'


Norman Rockwell's illustration accompanies Charles Morgan Jr.'s article "Southern Justice," published June 29 in Look magazine. It depicts civil rights activists Andrew Goodman, James Chaney and Michael Schwerner, killed in June 1964 in Mississippi.

Background


Rockwell based his illustration on Hector Rondon Lovera's photo (often called "Aid From The Padre"), taken in June 1962 during a short-lived rebellion in Venezuela. The photo was awarded the World Press Photo of the Year for 1962 and the Pulitzer Prize in 1963.
     * Story behind the photo (from "Picture Coverage of the World: Pulitzer Prize Winning Photos," Heinz Dietrich-Fischer, 2011): @


Early on, Rockwell's illustration (intended as a two-page spread) included the three victims as well as their killers.


This is Rockwell's finished version. Look editors decided to use Rockwell's earlier sketch in the magazine, though this work (known as "Murder in Mississippi") has become the more well-known of the two.

Resources
* Summary from Norman Rockwell Museum: @ (related reference materials can be found on the museum's website by searching for "Murder in Mississippi")
* Text of "Southern Justice" (from Norman Rockwell Museum): @
* "American Chronicles: The Art of Norman Rockwell" (2007): @
* "Rockwell & Race" (The Pop History Dig): @
* Earlier post on Goodman, Chaney and Schwerner (June 1964): @
* Earlier post on Rockwell's "The Problem We All Live With" (January 1964): @

6.28.2015

Monday, June 28, 1965: 'It's What's Happening, Baby'



In this prime-time special on CBS, hosted by disc jockey Murray the K (Murray Kaufman), performers donate their time and talents to educate teenagers about the function of the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity. ... In between segments, Murray the K and other entertainers comment on the various opportunities provided by the OEO and appeal to employers to help youths find work. (From The Paley Center for Media; link: @)
     -- TV listing from Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 28
     -- Image from Martha and the Vandellas' performance of "Nowhere to Run," filmed at Ford's Dearborn Assembly Plant (where the Mustang was built)

Note: As of this writing the entire show is available online. Start here with part 1; to the right are links to parts 2 and 3.

* "Experimental Show Aimed at Teenagers" (Associated Press, June 25): @
* "Hip Show Passes the Word" (United Press International, June 29): @
* "Antipoverty Film Called 'Shameful' " (Associated Press, June 30): @
* "Battle Against Poverty Has Been Beset By Controversy, Criticism, Complaint" (United Press International, July 15): @
* " 'It's What's Happening' did the job: 10,000 wrote" (Washington Afro-American, July 27): @
* Entry from The Murray the K Archives: @
* Entry from Ray Charles Video Museum: @
* Chapter by Norma Coates in "Music in Television: Channels of Listening" (Edited by James Deaville, 2011): @
* Excerpt from "The SAGE Handbook of Popular Music" (Edited by Andy Bennett and Steve Waksman, 2015): @ 

6.20.2015

Sunday, June 20, 1965: The Beatles in Paris


Taken during one of their two performances at the Palais Des Sports. Photo by Patrice Habans.

* Summary from The Beatles Bible: @
* Summary from "The Unreleased Beatles: Music & Film" (Richie Unterberger, 2006): @

6.18.2015

Friday, June 18, 1965: 'War is Hell'


Place: South Vietnam
Photographer: Horst Faas
Original caption (from The Associated Press): An unidentified U.S. Army personnel wears a hand-lettered "War Is Hell" slogan on his helmet June 18, 1965, during the Vietnam War. He was with the 173rd Airborne Brigade battalion on defense duty at Phuoc Vinh airstrip in South Vietnam.


The earliest publication date I can find is from July 23, 1967 in various newspapers as part of a story and a block of photos on soldiers' helmets. Caption: That old American individualism comes out even in the jungles of South Vietnam, as the above pictures show. Hats definitely are in fashion when the bullets fly -- and the fashions are as varied as the ingenuity of the GIs. Some are functional -- such as the extra machine gun ammunition around a machine gunner's hat, top left; some are expressive -- such as the "war is hell" band at top center; some are poignant -- like the helmet liner marked off for every day of the wearer's tour in bottom left; and some are nostalgic, such as the helmet featuring the snapshot in bottom center.

Note: In June 2012, the soldier was identified as Larry Wayne Chaffin, who served in 1965-66 (from The Southern Illinoisian: @). 

Horst Faas' Vietnam photos
* From The Denver Post: @
* From The Associated Press: @


Origins of phrase 'War is hell' (General William T. Sherman)
     -- Image from Ohio State Journal, August 12, 1880, on Sherman's speech the day before.
* From "Sherman: A Soldier's Passion for Order" (John F. Marsalek, 2007): @
* From "The Oxford Dictionary of American Quotations" (2006): @
* From "Nashville: The Western Confederacy's Final Gamble" (James L. McDonough, 2004): @ 

Friday, June 18, 1965: Anthony Quin and Huey Krohn


Place: Jackson, Mississippi
Photographer: Matt Herron
Account (from "103 More Pickets Held in Jackson," New York Times: @)

     In one incident at the white-columned Governor's Mansion, a beefy, suntanned Mississippi highway patrolman and a wide-eyed, 5-year-old Negro boy scuffled over the child's tiny American flag.
     The boy, Anthony Quin, was in a group of six who huddled in a shaded entrance of the building. He sat solemnly on the bottom step with his flag. Next to him was Dr. June Finer, a pretty, 30-year-old Chicagoan who works here with the Medical Committee on Human Rights.
     Dr. Finer had been trying to get into the stockage at the state fair grounds to give medical attention to the prisoners. The city police have refused and say they have two local doctors working there. Dr. Finer, a nursette bag of medical supplies over her shoulder, decided to be arrested and see for herself.
     As the squad of patrolmen advance on the little group to make the arrests, Dr. Finer put her arm around the boy. "Gimme that flag," said Patrolman Huey Krohn, a driver for Gov. Paul B. Johnson Jr. Anthony refused.
     The patrolman tried to wrest the flag from him but the child held on. He was dragged a few feet by the man and then lifted several feet off the ground. Finally the patrolman broke the stick of the flag and thrust the child from him. Anthony fell on the ground and began to cry. He was taken into the paddy wagon.
     The boy, the son of Mrs. Aylene Quin, chairman of the Freedom Democratic party in Pike County, was arrested once before during a voter registration drive in Magnolia. Last fall he was injured when his mother's house was bombed in McComb. His mother and a sister, Jacky, 9, were arrested with him today.
     The child was released several hours later in the custody of Alvin Bronstein, chief staff counsel of the Lawyers Constitutional Defense Committee.
     "That man hit my elbow and that was the only thing that made me start crying," the boy said, looking down at his blue sneakers. What did he think of having his flag taken away? 'I don't think nothin' about it,' he said.

Note: Herron's series of photos was awarded second place in general news stories in the World Press Photo competition for 1965.

Matt Herron
* From www.worldpress.org: @ (photos) and @ (profile)
* Herron's account of incident (from "Telling Their Stories," The Urban School of San Francisco): @
* Herron's account (from Princeton Alumni Weekly): @
* mattherronwriter.com: @
* www.takestockphotos.com (Herron is director): @
Anthony and Alyene Quin (often spelled as "Aylene" on websites and in news accounts)
* "Freedom Summer: 50 Years Later for Tampa Bay resident" (WFLA, 2014): @
* Alyene Quin profile (from SNCC Legacy Project): @
* Alyene Quin profile (from Mississippi Civil Rights Project): @
* "Civil Rights Incidents in McComb" (1964, from Civil Rights Movement Veterans): @
Dr. June Finer
* Profile (from Jewish Women's Archive): @
* Medical Committee for Human Rights pamphlet (from Civil Rights Movement Veterans): @
* "The Good Doctors: The Medical Committee for Human Rights and the Struggle for Social Justice in Health Care" (John Dittmer, 2009): @
* "Going South: Jewish Women in the Civil Rights Movement" (Debra L. Schultz and Blance Wiesen Cook, 2002): @
Other resources
* "Jackson Jails 103 Rights Marchers" (Associated Press, June 18, 1965): @
* 2014 blog entry from M.J. O'Brien, author of "We Shall Not Be Moved: The Jackson Woolworth Sit-In and the Movement It Inspired": @
* "When Youth Protest: The Mississippi Civil Rights Movement, 1955-1970" (Mississippi Historical Society): @
* "Local People: the Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi" (John Dittmer, 1994): @ 

6.14.2015

June 1965: 'Yesterday' and 'Like a Rolling Stone'


Monday, June 14 and Thursday, June 17: The Beatles (specifically, Paul McCartney and a string quartet) record "Yesterday."
* From The Beatles Bible: @
* From "The Beatles Anthology" (2000): @
* From "All The Songs: The Story Behind Every Beatles Release" (Philippe Margotin and Jean-Michel Guesdon, 2013): @


Wednesday, June 16: Bob Dylan records "Like a Rolling Stone." 
* From Rolling Stone magazine (2015): @
* "Greil Marcus on Recording 'Like a Rolling Stone' " (NPR, 2005): @
* "Like a Rolling Stone: Bob Dylan at the Crossroads" (Marcus, 2005): @ 

6.11.2015

Thich Quang Duc and George Wallace

If you're looking for the entries from June 11, 1963, click here for Thich Quang Duc's self-immolation and here for George Wallace's Stand in the Schoolhouse Door.

6.08.2015

1965: Barbie Miss Astronaut


Two years after Valentina Tereshkova of the Soviet Union became the first woman in space, Mattel begins selling astronaut outfits for Barbie ("Miss Astronaut") and Ken ("Mr. Astronaut"). It would be another year before Hasbro introduced astronaut gear for GI Joe.

* Summaries from www.barbiecollector.com: @ (Barbie) and @ (Ken)
* Summary from Fashion Doll Guide: @
* "Mattel's Astronaut Barbie Becomes a Mars Explorer with NASA help" (space.com, 2013): @ 

6.07.2015

Monday, June 7, 1965: Griswold v. Connecticut


In Griswold v. Connecticut (1965), the Supreme Court ruled that a state's ban on the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy. The case concerned a Connecticut law that criminalized the encouragement or use of birth control. ... Estelle Griswold, the executive director of Planned Parenthood of Connecticut, and Dr. C. Lee Buxton, doctor and professor at Yale Medical School, were arrested and found guilty as accessories to providing illegal contraception. They were fined $100 each. Griswold and Buxton appealed to the Supreme Court of Errors of Connecticut, claiming that the law violated the U.S. Constitution. The Connecticut court upheld the conviction, and Griswold and Buxton appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which reviewed the case in 1965. The Supreme Court, in a 7-2 decision written by Justice William O. Douglas, ruled that the law violated the "right to marital privacy" and could not be enforced against married people.
     -- From "Expanding Civil Rights: Landmark Cases," www.pbs.org: @
     -- Caption: Estelle Griswold, executive director of the Planned Parenthood League, standing outside the center in April 1963, which was closed pending decision of the U.S. Supreme Court regarding Connecticut state law forbidding sale or use of contraceptives (from "The Legal Legacy of Griswold v. Connecticut," David J. Garrow for American Bar Association, 2011): @

* "Birth Control Law Said 'Invasion of Privacy' " (The Associated Press): @
* Oral arguments (from The Oyez Project): @
* Text of ruling (from FindLaw): @
* "Liberty and Sexuality: The Right to Privacy and the making of Roe v. Wade" (David J. Garrow, 1994): @
* Summary from "Sexual Rights in America: The Ninth Amendment and the Pursuit of Happiness" (Paul R. Abramson, Steven D. Pinkerton and Mark Huppin, 2003): @

6.01.2015

June 1965: Vacuum of space


Despite the fact that a considerable number of studies have been carried out on the effects of rapid decompression to high altitudes, there is still very little information and data concerning the actual effects of exposures to extremely low barometric pressures -- that is, to pressure environments approaching the near-vacuum of space. This information is becoming increasingly urgent in view of the current manned space flights, the programmed flights to the surface of the moon, and the need for man to function safely within a pressure suit in space. ... The critical situation confronting an aerospace crew should accidental loss of pressure be experienced dictated the use of physiologically normal animals so that the data collected would be as valid as possible to obtain. Normal, anesthetized dogs were therefore used; 126 animals were rapidly decompressed to absolute pressures of 1 to 2 mm. Hg.
     -- From "Experimental Animal Decompressions to a Near-Vacuum Environment" (Bancroft and Dunn, NASA Technical Report, published June 1965): @

* "Human Exposure to Vacuum" (www.geoffreylandis.com): @
* "What happens if you are exposed to the vacuum of space?" (Phil Plait, Discover magazine, 2012): @
* "Human Exposure to the Vacuum of Space" (www.aerospaceweb.org): @
* "The Body at Vacuum" (from "The Engines of Our Ingenuity," University of Houston): @
* "Survival in Space Unprotected is Possible -- Briefly" (Scientific American, 2008): @
* "The Crew That Never Came Home: The Misfortunes of Soyuz 11" (Space Safety magazine, 2013): @
* Summary of Soyuz 11 flight (Encyclopedia Asronautica): @
* "The Effect on the Chimpanzee of Rapid Decompression to a Near Vacuum" (NASA, 1965): @
* "Rapid (Explosive) Decompression Emergencies in Pressure-Suited Subjects (NASA, 1968): @
* "Bioastronautics Data Book" (NASA, 1974; see Chapter 1, "Barometic Pressure"): @ 

5.25.2015

Tuesday, May 25, 1965: Clay-Liston 'phantom punch'


LEWISTON, Maine -- In a one-minute fiasco that was worse than their first meeting in Miami Beach 15 months ago, Cassius Clay retained the world heavyweight title by knocking out old Sonny Liston in St. Dom's Arena Tuesday night. The first punch thrown by the 23-year-old champion was a short, nearly invisible right hand that landed on Liston's jaw. It was his only punch, after running, backing and ducking from Liston's determined pursuit. Liston crumpled from the blow, rolled over flat on his back, turned and tried to get, fell again. 
     -- "Just A Minute Clay Still Champ" (Jesse Abramson, New York Herald Tribune): @
     -- Photo by Neil Leifer, Sports Illustrated

* "Clay Wins By KO In One Minute Of 1st Round" (Associated Press): @
* "Muhammad Ali in Lewiston: The Legend of the Phantom Punch is Born" (New England Historical Society): @
* "The Night the Ali-Liston Fight Came to Lewiston" (New York Times, 2015): @
* "Ali-Liston 50th anniversary: The true story behind Neil Leifer's perfect photo" (Slate, 2015): @ 

5.23.2015

Sunday, May 23, 1965: 'Credibility gap'


The term -- referring to the disparity between the stated justification and the actual reason for U.S. military intervention in the Dominican Republic -- appears as part of a column written by David Wise of the New York Herald Tribune. Wise does not use those exact words; instead, it appears in the headline "Dilemma in 'Credibility Gap.' "  
     -- Clipping from The High Point (N.C.) Enterprise, May 28, 1965

(A May 1 message from Gen. Earle G. Weaver, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, to Lt.  Gen. Bruce Palmer Jr., commander of the U.S. forces in the Dominican Republic, summarizes the narratives: "Your announced mission is to save US lives. Your unannounced mission is to prevent the Dominican Republic from going Communist.")
     -- Source: "Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964-1968": @)

     The term gains wider use after Murrey Marder's story in The Washington Post in December 1965: "Creeping signs of doubt and cynicism about administration pronouncements, especially in its foreign policy, are privately troubling some of the government's usually stalwart supporters. The problem could be called a credibility gap. It represents a perceptibly growing disquiet, misgiving or skepticism about the candor or validity of official declarations."
     -- "Doubt Grows Over Administration Statements," as published in the (Mansfield, Ohio) News-Journal, December 7, 1965 (via newspapers.com; subscription only): @

     The term would become closely associated with the Johnson administration's conduct of the Vietnam War, as well as with the words and actions of politicians in general.

Resources
* Entry from "Encyclopedia of American Journalism" (edited by Stephen L. Vaughn, 2008): @
* Entry from "Safire's Political Dictionary" (William Safire, 2008): @
* Entry from "Historical Dictionary of the 1970s" (edited by James S. Olson, 1999): @
* Entry from "History of the Mass Media in the United States: An Encyclopedia" (edited by Margaret A. Blanchard, 1998): @
* "Credibility Gap -- Part 1" (Walter Lippman, March 1967): @
* "Credibility Gap -- Part 2" (Lippman, April 1967): @
* "Congress, Information and Foreign Affairs" (Prepared for the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations by the Foreign Affairs and National Defense Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 1978): @
* "When Presidents Lie: A History of Official Deception and Its Consequences" (Eric Alterman, 2004): @
* "McNamara, Clifford, and the Burdens of Vietnam, 1965-1969" (Edward J. Drea, Historical Office, Office of the Secretary of Defense, 2011): @ 

5.18.2015

Tuesday, May 18, 1965: James Karales' civil rights photo


James Karales' photo of the Selma-to-Montgomery march appears across two pages in Look magazine, with the words TURNING POINT FOR THE CHURCH printed across the top edge. (It was part of a story titled "Our churches' sin against the Negro.") The accompanying text reads:

There have been marches before, but never marchers like these -- a weaponless, potluck army, moving in conquest through hostile territory under the unwilling protection of the enemy. So did a Georgia preacher lead of pilgrimage of enfranchised Alabama Negroes 54 miles this spring to the steps of their state capitol. The concept was biblical. The execution was 1965 American. The Army and FBI guaranteed White House support. Patrol cars, helicopters, truck-borne latrines and first-aid vans bracketed the column; the marchers ate from paper plates with throwaway plastic spoons and slept under floodlit tents. Sustained by rationed peanuts-butter sandwiches, they never faltered in their pace and bitter humor. "I've been called 'nigger,' " said somebody up front. "Well, from now on, it's got to be 'Mister nigger.' " Across the Black Belt farmland rolled the pickup words of their new battle hymn: "Oh, Wallace, you know you can't jail us all; Oh, Wallace, segregation's bound to fail." In it, the white ministers, priests, rabbis and nuns, who had jetted vast distances to reinforce the march, found a new statement of faith.

Karales' son, Andreas, recounted how the photo came to be: " ... he described trying to find an image that would symbolize the meaning and feeling of the march. He struggled over the course of the five-day march, making countless attempts to produce something that he felt worthy of his goal. On the last day a storm swept in and he knew that this was his moment. He rushed to get to the right spot to frame both events as they happened. He was fortunate to get the shot as the storm moved on quickly. ... The menacing clouds and synchronized stride of the marchers happened in one short moment and is what makes this photograph so special. It was one of my father's greatest catches and was the result of his great patience." -- From "Andreas Karales' Memories of his Father, James" (via Gibbes Museum of Art, Charleston, South Carolina): @

* Karales' obituary (Los Angeles Times, 2002): @
* Earlier post on Selma-to-Montgomery photographers: @ 

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