The '60s at 50


Sunday, August 22, 1965: Juan Marichal and John Roseboro

Photo by Neil Leifer: @

From Sarasota Herald-Tribune: @

Photo by Neil Leifer: @

* "Marichal Clubs Roseboro With a Bat" (New York Times): @
* "The Fight of Their Lives: How Juan Marichal and John Roseboro Turned Baseball's Ugliest Brawl into a Story of Forgiveness and Redemption" (John Rosengren, 2014): @
* Excerpt from "The Fight of Their Lives" (Sports Illustrated, 2014): @
* "Incident at Candlestick" (MLB Network, 2009): @
* "What Baseball's Most Famous Brawl Photo Didn't Show You" (Deadspin, 2014): @


Sunday, August 15, 1965: The Beatles at Shea Stadium

     The sound was unbelievable and more than a little terrifying.
     What started as a joyful shriek quickly became a steady scream, then a deafening howl and finally an ear-splitting roar like the takeoff noise of a giant jet or the launching of a rocket.
     It was the hysterical sound of more than 55,000 Beatles fans -- almost all of them sobbing teen-age girls. And it went on and on and on for the full 30 minutes that the four mop-top minstrels from Liverpool, England, performed Sunday night at Shea Stadium.
     -- United Press International (full story: @)
     -- Photo from New York Daily News

* Summary from Beatles Bible: @
* "There Were Howls at Shea Stadium as Beatles Sang" (Associated Press, August 16, 1965): @
* "Beatlemonium at Stadium -- Youngsters Get Carried Away" (Billboard magazine, August 28, 1965): @
* Excerpt from " Day-by-Day Song-by-Song Record-by-Record" (Craig Cross, 2004): @
* "The Beatles at Shea Stadium: The Story Behind Their Greatest Concert" (Dave Schwensen, 2014): @
* "The Shea Stadium Concert" ( @ 


Wednesday, August 11, 1965: Watts riots begin

Wednesday, August 11
     An estimated 1,000 persons rioted in the Watts district Wednesday night and attacked police and motorists with rocks, bricks and bottles before some 100 officers attempted to quell the five-hour melee by sealing off an eight-block area. ...
     The incident began with a minor disturbance about 7:19 p.m. when California Highway Patrol officers Lee Minikus and Bob Lewis stopped an auto near 116th St. and Avalon Blvd.
     The officers said they attempted to arrest driver Marquette Frye, 21, of 11620 S. Towne St., on suspicion of drunk driving along with his brother, Ronald, 22. 
     But their mother, Rena, 49, who lives near by, approached the scene and began scolding her sons, the officers said.
     The two suspects began resisting arrest and their mother joined them in berating the officers along with a crowd of about 200, they said. The shirt was torn from the back of one of the officers in the ensuing disturbance.
     Minikus and Lewis and radioed for assistance and about 20 city officers responded under a hail of rocks. The officers succeeded in leaving with the three suspects, but a large crowd began to gather at the intersection.
     -- Los Angeles Times: @ 

Thursday, August 12
     Fierce rioting again gripped the Negro section of south Los Angeles tonight. Officials called it the worst racial incident in the city's history.
     Crowds of up to 5,000 Negroes gathered in a 20-block area that had been sealed off by some 100 policemen and more than 300 deputy sheriffs. ...
     Officials were at a loss to explain the cause of the rioting, which started last night after a routine drunken driving arrest. The unusually hot, smoggy weather was doubtless a contributing factor.
     Many Negroes at the scene complained about alleged police brutality but few cited specific instances to support their charges.
     -- New York Times: @ 

Friday, August 13
     National Guardsmen with fixed bayonets marched Friday night into a Negro district where arsonists and looters were out of control and flying bullets killed both police and civilians.
     Four persons, one a deputy sheriff, were reported slain by gunshot just before the first wave of 400 steel-helmeted troops rolled into the community of Watts and quickly took over without incident.
     The area, focal point of rioting for two days, was quiet when guardsmen arrived. All the action was farther north where thousands of Negroes raced through darkness breaking into stores, looting them and igniting many.
     -- Associated Press: @

Saturday, August 14
     The nation's worst Negro uprising in two decades was crushed Saturday by 2,000 rifle-carrying National Guardsmen and armed police but sporadic violence and nearly uncontrolled looting went on throughout the area.
     At least 17 persons were killed, a thousand arrested and "astronomical" damage in the millions was caused in the three days of rioting.
     Police cautioned store owners not to risk lives by defending their property as devastated supermarkets, department stores and shops became targets again for ransacking when troops pulled back to bivouacs. Police rounded up the looters as fast as they could catch them.
     -- United Press International: @
     -- Timeline, Wednesday-Saturday (Australian Associated Press): @ 

Sunday, August 15
     A vast military maneuver Sunday seized, occupied and almost completely controlled a Negro district wracked by five days' violence. But a police officer was shot to death as rampaging Negro mobs carried violence to other areas.
     -- Associated Press: @

Monday, August 16
     Comparative calm settled over the city's troop-encircled Negro riot zone today after a wild night in which violence spread for the first time to other Southern California cities. ...
     After five straight nights of rioting by uncounted thousands of Negroes, police removed most of the barricades in a 42-square-mile "unsafe" zone and this morning residents moved about freely for the first time since Wednesday night.
     -- Associated Press: @ 

Tuesday, August 17
     Violence dwindled today in Los Angeles' vast Negro district after six days of rioting which evangelist Billy Graham called "a dress rehearsal for a revolution." ...
     Courts processed the first of more than 3,000 suspected rioters arrested.
     Food markets opened and clears, wearing pistols, sold food as troops stood guard.
     City and county offices were opened, buses rolled again, mail delivery was resumed, and clean-up crew tackled wreckage left by six days of turmoil.
     Gov. Edmund G. Brown declared the riots ended.
     But 15,000 National Guardsmen still held the 46-square-mile heart of the Los Angeles Negro district sealed within a perimeter of guns.
     -- Associated Press: @

Wednesday, August 18
     Police and National Guardsmen today unleashed a barrage of gunfire into a Black Muslim mosque in the heart of a Negro neighborhood where weeklong rioting had been declared ended. 
     Officers opened up with pistols, rifles and shotguns after several heavily-armed Negroes were reported to have entered the building and fired on police. Eight Negroes suffered head injuries in scuffling with police who charged into the temple.
     -- United Press International: @

Other resources
* "Violence in the City: An End or a Beginning? / A Report by the Governor's Commission on the Los Angeles Riots" (December 1965): @
* Summary from @
* Summary from @
* Summary from Civil Rights Digital Library: @
* Summary from "Encyclopedia of Political Communication" (edited by Lynda Lee Kaid and Christina Holtz-Bacha, 2008): @
* KTLA audio, August 13, 1965 ( @
* Life magazine, August 27, 1965: @
* Jet magazine, September 2, 1965: @
* Ebony magazine, October 1965: @
* Newsreel: @ 
* "There's Still Hell to Pay in Watts" (Life magazine, July 15, 1966; excerpt from "Burn, Baby, Burn!," Jerry Cohen and William S. Murphy): @
* Origins of "Burn, Baby! Burn!" ( @
* Radio interview with Magnificent Montague (Public Radio Exchange, 2009): @
* "Report Takes Myth Out of That Watts Rioting" (United Press International, September 1, 1966): @
* "A Stranger in the City" (Robert Conot, 1967; from "Perspectives on Black America," 1970): @
* Marquette Frye obituary (Los Angeles Times; 1986): @
* Rena Price obituary (Los Angeles Times; 2013): @
* "Watts Riots Changed the Black Movement for Years Afterward" (United Press International, August 1990): @
* "Fire This Time: The Watts Uprising and the 1960s" (Gerald Horne, 1995): @
* "Burn Baby Burn: Small Business in the Urban Riots of the 1960s" (Jonathan J. Bean, Independent Review, 2000): @
* "Watts Riots, 40 Years Later" (Los Angeles Times, August 11, 2005): @
* "Troubled Pasts: News and the Collective Memory of Social Unrest" (Jill A. Edy, 2006): @ 


Friday, August 6, 1965: Voting Rights Act

WASHINGTON -- President Johnson signed his monumental Negro voting rights bill today, treading the century-old path of Abraham Lincoln, and declaring the new law is a triumph for freedom as great as any won on the battlefield.
     First, in the vaulted rotunda of the Capitol, Johnson said the measure will "strike away the last major shackles of those fierce and ancient bonds" which have bound American Negroes. ... Then he moved to the ornate President's Room off the Senate chamber, to etch his signature with dozens of souvenir pens, writing on a desk that Secretary Felton Johnson said Lincoln used in signing a measure to free slaves impressed into war service by the Confederacy. ... 
     By next week, he said, federal officials will be at work in the South, registering Negroes who have been kept from the polling place.
     -- Story from Associated Press (full story: @)
     -- Top photo, Johnson signing bill into law (Corbis); bottom photo, Camden, Alabama, 1966 (Flip Schulke)

* First and last page ( @
* Full text (U.S. Statutes at Large, Volume 79, 89th Congress, 1st Session): @
* Text of LBJ speech (LBJ Library): @
* Video of LBJ speech (LBJ Library): @
* Universal Newsreel (Critical Past): @
* Photos (LBJ Library; search for "Voting Rights Act"): @ 
* Photos ("50th Anniversary of the Voting Rights Act," Corbis Images): @
* "Voting Rights Legislation Means Changes For South" (James Marlow, Associated Press, August 9, 1965): @ 
* "A Million New Negro Voters?" (U.S. News & World Report, August 16, 1965; from Library of Congress): @
* "LBJ Signs Voting Bill; Attacks Poll Tax" (Jet magazine, August 19, 1965): @
* "The New Voting Law Goes into Action" (Life magazine, August 20, 1965): @
* "Introduction to Federal Voting Rights Law" (U.S. Department of Justice): @
* "Civil Rights in America: Racial Voting Rights" (National Historic Landmarks Program): @
* "Bending Toward Justice: The Voting Rights Act and the Transformation of American Democracy" (Gary May, 2013): @
* "The Most Fundamental Right: Contrasting Perspectives on the Voting Rights Act" (edited by Daniel McCool, 2012): @
* "Quiet Revolution in the South: The Impact of the Voting Rights Act, 1965-1990" (edited by Chandler Davidson and Bernard Grofman, 1994): @ 


Thursday, August 5, 1965: CBS report on Cam Ne, South Vietnam

CBS airs Morley Safer's report on U.S. Marines setting fire to houses in Cam Ne, a village southwest of Da Nang Air Base in South Vietnam. Reaction ranges from unease to outrage (by viewers angry at CBS, as well as by President Johnson in a blistering phone call to CBS President Frank Stanton). The report is considered a milestone moment in media coverage of the Vietnam War.
     -- The incident at Cam Ne took place on August 3, while Safer's report aired on August 5. The story at top appeared August 3 in the Logansport (Indiana) Pharos-Tribune; the photo ran August 7 in The La Crosse (Wisconsin) Tribune.

* Watch the segment ("The 6:00 Follies: Hegemony, Television News, and the War of Attrition," Elizabeth J. Burnette, American Studies at the University of Virginia, 2005): @
* Video interview with Safer (Archive of American Television, 2000): @
* Account from Safer (from "Reporting America at War," PBS, 2003): @
* "Marines Ordered to Stop Burning Viet Nam Villages" (Los Angeles Times, August 23, 1965): @
* "What Really Happened at Cam Ne" (, 2006): @
* "When The World Began Watching" (The Alicia Patterson Foundation, 2011): @
* "The Power and The Profits: Part II" (David Halberstam, The Atlantic magazine, February 1976): @
* "The Powers That Be" (Halberstam, 1975): @
* Video interview with Halberstam (WGBH, 1979): @
* Excerpt from "The Uncensored War: The Media and Vietnam" (Daniel C. Hallin, 1986): @
* Excerpt from "The Legacy: The Vietnam War in the American Imagination" (from chapter titled "Vietnam and the Press," Michael X. Delli Carpini; book edited by D. Michael Shafer, 1990): @
* Excerpt from "The Sixties: From Memory to History" (from chapter titled "And That's The Way It Was: The Vietnam War on the Network Nightly News," Chester J. Pach Jr.; book edited by David Farber, 1994): @
* "Excerpt from "The U.S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships, Part IV" (William C. Gibbons, 1995): @
* Excerpt from "The End of Victory Culture: Cold War America and the Disillusioning of a Generation" (Tom Engelhardt, 1995): @
* Excerpt from "Encyclopedia of Media and Propaganda in Wartime America" (edited by Martin J. Manning and Clarence R. Wyatt, 2011): @ 


August 1965: Up with People

Moral Re-Armament was an international religious movement that developed in 1938 from the ideas of an American, Rev. N.D. Buchman, and his students called the Oxford Group. Buchman headed the MRA until his death in 1961. The Oxford Group believed the world in the late 1930s needed moral re-armament, not military re-armament. Initially based in Christian roots, the group grew to encompass people of various backgrounds and faith who believed in the "Four Absolutes" -- absolute honesty, absolute purity, absolute unselfishness and absolute love. (From Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University: @)

Up with People -- essentially the Moral Re-Armament doctrine set to upbeat songs -- emerged from the group's annual conference at Mackinac Island, Michigan, in June 1965. The show by the troupe of young people, called "Sing-Out '65," was first staged in Stamford, Connecticut, in early August. Among the songs was "Up with People!", which the touring group later took as its name.
     -- Images from program for "The Colwell Brothers in Sing-Out '65" (University of Arizona): @

* Up with People website: @
* Timeline (From UWP): @
* Up with People alumni website: @
* Up with People Digital Collection (University of Arizona): @
* "Up with People!" song (audio): @
* Up with People YouTube channel: @
* "Change Yourself -- And You Can Change the World" (Kiplinger's Personal Finance, June 1953): @
* "Escalation of an Answer" (Moral Re-Armament advertisement, The Desert Sun, Palm Springs, Calif.; July 12, 1965): @
* "Sing-Out Turns Into Big Thrust" (King Features Syndicate, September 23, 1965): @
* "Moral Re-Armament Plans Revolution of Love, Purity" (United Press International, October 20, 1965): @
* "Smile 'Til It Hurts" (website for 2009 documentary): @
* "Moral Re-Armament: The Reinventions of an American Religious Movement" (Daniel Sack, 2009): @
* "Frank Buchman: A Life" (Garth Lean, 1985): @


Friday, July 30, 1965: Medicare and Medicaid

INDEPENDENCE, Mo., July 31 -- President Johnson signed his $6.5 billion medicare bill yesterday after journeying more than 1,000 miles to share "this time of triumph" with former President Truman. The new law, said the 81-year-old former president, will mean dignity, not charity "for those of us who have moved to the sidelines." Then, one hand on his cane, Mr. Truman stepped aside as Mr. Johnson told how the vast program of medical insurance for the elderly would help millions of Americans. ... 
     This document was a 133-page bill which soared past its final congressional test Wednesday. At a $6.5 billion price tag, it will provide hospital insurance for Americans over 65, set up a voluntary program to cover the doctors' bills of elderly Americans and boost Social Security benefits. Mr. Johnson's signature set in motion machinery that will reach Social Security pensioners in September -- in the form of retroactive increases in their government checks. The health insurance programs go into operation next July 1.
     -- From The Associated Press (full story: @)

* "Here's What Medicare Will Cover" (Newspaper Enterprise Association, 1965): @
* "Who's Eligible for Medicare?" (NEA, 1965): @
* "Happy Birthday, Medicare!" (Government Printing Office, 2014; includes link to full text of law): @
* President Johnson's remarks (LBJ Library): @
* "50th Anniversary of Medicare and Medicaid" (LBJ Library): @
* Summary (U.S. Senate): @
* Summary (Harry S. Truman Library and Museum): @
* Summary and links ( @
* Medicare Timeline (Kaiser Family Foundation): @
* "Generations: Medicare at 50 Years" (Kaiser Family Foundation): @
* "When Medicare launched, nobody had any clue whether it would work" (The Washington Post, 2013): @


Wednesday, July 28, 1965: 'This ... is why we are in Vietnam'

President Johnson begins his news conference by announcing plans to increase U.S. troops in the Vietnam War from 75,000 to 125,000, along with doubling the monthly military draft quota from 17,000 to 35,000. He also lays out the reasons for America's increasing involvement, including this passage:

"We did not choose to be the guardians at the gate, but there is no one else. ... Three presidents -- President Eisenhower, President Kennedy, and your present president -- over 11 years have committed themselves and have promised to help defend this small and valiant nation. Strengthened by that promise,  the people of South Vietnam have fought for many long years. Thousands of them have died. Thousands more have been crippled and scarred by war. We just cannot now dishonor our word, or abandon our commitment, or leave those who believed us and who trusted us to the terror and repression and murder that would follow. This, then, my fellow Americans, is why we are in Vietnam." 

Johnson concludes with these words: "... as long as there are men who hate and destroy, we must have the courage to resist, or we will see it all, all that we have built, all that we hope to build, all of our dreams for freedom -- all, all will be swept away on the flood of conquest. So, too, this shall not happen. We will stand in Vietnam."

-- Map detail from "Azimuthal Equidistant Projection Centered on Saigon" (CIA, 1965): @

* Transcript (from "Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States"): @
* Video & audio (Miller Center, University of Virginia): @
* "Build-Up in Viet Nam" (Toledo Blade, July 25, 1965): @
* "President Doubles Draft Call" (United Press International, July 28, 1965): @
* "LBJ Hikes Draft for Viet Nam War" (Associated Press, July 29): @
* "Johnson Tells Why Vietnam in Pamphlet" (Associated Press, August 24): @
* "Why Viet-Nam" (Department of Defense, 1965; includes remarks from Johnson's news conference; from Internet Archive): @
* "Johnson's Escalation of Vietnam: A Timeline" (Bill Moyers Journal, 2009): @ 
* Excerpt from "Presidents and Protestors: Political Rhetoric in the 1960s" (Theodore Windt, 1990): @
* "McNamara, Clifford, and the Burdens of Vietnam" (Secretaries of Defense Historical Series, 2011): @
* Pentagon Papers (National Archives, 1969): @ 


Sunday, July 25, 1965: Dylan goes electric

At the Newport Folk Festival, Bob Dylan surprises the audience with his hard-rocking set. Accounts vary as to whether the crowd was unhappy over his new style of music or over the  quality of the sound system.
     -- Photo from Michael Ochs Archives

* Summary ( @
* Summary ( @
* Video of "Maggie's Farm" performance: @
* Video of Pete Seeger's account: @
* Set list ( @
* Excerpt from "No Direction Home: The Life and Music of Bob Dylan" (Robert Shelton, 1986): @
* "No Direction Home": @ 
* "Newport: It's All Right, Ma, I'm Only Playing R & R" (The Village Voice, August 5, 1965): @
* "The Legend of Dylan at Newport" (Sam Allis, The Boston Globe, 2002): @
* "Dylan Goes Electric! Newport, Seeger, Dylan, and the Night That Split the Sixties" (Elijah Wald, 2015): @
* "Dylan at Newport, 1965: Music, Myth and Un-Meaning" (Edward Renehan, 2015): @ 


Friday, July 16, 1965: The Southern Courier

The Southern Courier was established in 1965 by college students and recent graduates to cover the civil rights movement and President Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty in the American South. Despite the paper's small size and relatively short publication life, The Southern Courier fulfilled an important and sorely needed role in the post-1965 South by providing African Americans and sympathetic whites with a broader sense of community in the fight for equality. The Southern Courier offered a more complex view of race relations to the general public.
     -- From Encyclopedia of Alabama (full summary: @)

* Southern Courier site (includes links to PDFs of every issue): @
* Jim Peppler Southern Courier Photograph Collection (Alabama Department of Archives and History): @
* Summary from Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement: @
* "A Personal Historian's Memories of the American Civil Rights Era: Birmingham Alabama 1967" (Joan Tornow, 2015): @
* "Civil Rights: Student Editors from Harvard Plan an Independent Newspaper" (Nashua Telegraph, May 5, 1965): @
* "New Civil Rights Paper Covers Southern Issues" (The Michigan Daily, July 1, 1965): @
* "The Southern Courier: A Study of Civil Rights Journalism in Alabama" (Nieman Reports, December 1966, page 15): @
* Excerpt from "Fighting the Devil in Dixie: How Civil Rights Activists Took On the Ku Klux Klan" (Wayne Greenhaw, 2011): @ 


Wednesday, July 14, 1965: Mariner 4's photos of Mars

Man's first closeup picture of Mars shows a remarkably earth-like desert area -- but gives no hint of an answer to whether they mysterious planet could harbor life. The poorly defined picture snapped as Mariner 4 flew within 10,500 miles of Mars Wednesday was released Thursday night while the U.S. spacecraft was relaying its second picture across 134 million miles of space. Almost half the picture showed only the dark void of space, with but a small portion of the edge of Mars visible in the streaked and smudged frame. (From The Associated Press; full story: @)
     -- Image from NASA; all Mariner 4 photos: @

* "Mariner 4 Makes Flight Past Mars" (The New York Times): @
* Flight details (NASA): @
* "Mariner to Mercury, Venus and Mars" (Jet Propulsion Laboratory): @
* "Mariner 4: First Spacecraft to Mars" ( @
* "Blast from the past: Mariner 4's images of Mars" (The Planetary Society, 2012): @
* "Looking back at Mariner images of Mars" (The Planetary Society, 2013): @
* Hand-colored image: @ (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and @ (Dan Goods)


Tuesday, June 29, 1965: 'Murder in Mississippi'

Norman Rockwell's illustration accompanies Charles Morgan Jr.'s article "Southern Justice," published June 29 in Look magazine. It depicts civil rights activists Andrew Goodman, James Chaney and Michael Schwerner, killed in June 1964 in Mississippi.


Rockwell based his illustration on Hector Rondon Lovera's photo (often called "Aid From The Padre"), taken in June 1962 during a short-lived rebellion in Venezuela. The photo was awarded the World Press Photo of the Year for 1962 and the Pulitzer Prize in 1963.
     * Story behind the photo (from "Picture Coverage of the World: Pulitzer Prize Winning Photos," Heinz Dietrich-Fischer, 2011): @

Early on, Rockwell's illustration (intended as a two-page spread) included the three victims as well as their killers.

This is Rockwell's finished version. Look editors decided to use Rockwell's earlier sketch in the magazine, though this work (known as "Murder in Mississippi") has become the more well-known of the two.

* Summary from Norman Rockwell Museum: @ (related reference materials can be found on the museum's website by searching for "Murder in Mississippi")
* Text of "Southern Justice" (from Norman Rockwell Museum): @
* "American Chronicles: The Art of Norman Rockwell" (2007): @
* "Rockwell & Race" (The Pop History Dig): @
* Earlier post on Goodman, Chaney and Schwerner (June 1964): @
* Earlier post on Rockwell's "The Problem We All Live With" (January 1964): @


Monday, June 28, 1965: 'It's What's Happening, Baby'

In this prime-time special on CBS, hosted by disc jockey Murray the K (Murray Kaufman), performers donate their time and talents to educate teenagers about the function of the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity. ... In between segments, Murray the K and other entertainers comment on the various opportunities provided by the OEO and appeal to employers to help youths find work. (From The Paley Center for Media; link: @)
     -- TV listing from Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 28
     -- Image from Martha and the Vandellas' performance of "Nowhere to Run," filmed at Ford's Dearborn Assembly Plant (where the Mustang was built)

Note: As of this writing the entire show is available online. Start here with part 1; to the right are links to parts 2 and 3.

* "Experimental Show Aimed at Teenagers" (Associated Press, June 25): @
* "Hip Show Passes the Word" (United Press International, June 29): @
* "Antipoverty Film Called 'Shameful' " (Associated Press, June 30): @
* "Battle Against Poverty Has Been Beset By Controversy, Criticism, Complaint" (United Press International, July 15): @
* " 'It's What's Happening' did the job: 10,000 wrote" (Washington Afro-American, July 27): @
* Entry from The Murray the K Archives: @
* Entry from Ray Charles Video Museum: @
* Chapter by Norma Coates in "Music in Television: Channels of Listening" (Edited by James Deaville, 2011): @
* Excerpt from "The SAGE Handbook of Popular Music" (Edited by Andy Bennett and Steve Waksman, 2015): @ 


Sunday, June 20, 1965: The Beatles in Paris

Taken during one of their two performances at the Palais Des Sports. Photo by Patrice Habans.

* Summary from The Beatles Bible: @
* Summary from "The Unreleased Beatles: Music & Film" (Richie Unterberger, 2006): @

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