The '60s at 50


Thursday, October 14, 1965: Programma 101

Desktop computer or programmable calculator? To this day it's a point of contention about Olivetti's Programma 101 (list price $3,200), introduced at the New York World's Fair. The New York Times split the difference in its reporting the next day: 

Two new entries have gone to the post in the race for the desk-calculator dollar. ... The new Olivetti machine, the Programma 101, is closer in nature to a computer than the new Victor device. Like a computer it can automatically run programs calling for a series of arithmetic operations. It can also store or remember these programs internally as well as externally, and through these programs can make simple logical decisions. ... The Olivetti device displays its calculations on a paper printout. Its numerous functions allow it to be used for both business and scientific purposes.

* "The incredible story of the first PC, from 1965" ( @
* Entry from @
* Entry from @
* Entry from The Old Calculator Web Museum: @
* "The invention of the personal computer: a fascinating story ever told" (website of Pier Giorgio Perotto, Olivetti engineer and architect of the Programma 101; use Google translate): @ 
* Operating manual (ClassicCmp): @
* Advertisement (video from Archivio Nazionale del Cinema d'Impresa): @
* 101 Project: @


Friday, October 8, 1965: LBJ surgery

President Johnson's gall bladder operation was performed without complications today, and three hours later he was reported "doing well." ... The surgical team did find and remove a kidney stone in the ureter as well as removing the faulty gall bladder. The ureter is a passage through which urine is voided.
     -- From Associated Press: @ 

Johnson returned to the White House on October 21. The day before, at Bethesda Naval Hospital, he showed the press his surgical scar. The image would be the basis of a famous cartoon by David Levine, with the scar in the shape of Vietnam (The New York Review of Books, May 12, 1966). Mad magazine would take a similar approach in its January 1968 issue: @

* "Statement by the President That He Would Undergo Surgery" (October 5; American Presidency Project): @ 
* October 8 entry from LBJ Presidential Library: @
* " 'Two Operations for the Price of One' " (Life magazine, October 29): @ 


1965: Pillsbury Doughboy

Leo Burnett creative director Rudy Perz was sitting at his kitchen table in the mid-1960s when he dreamed up the idea of a plump, dough figure that would pop out of a tube of refrigerated rolls. Since then, Pillsbury has used Poppin' Fresh in more than 600 commercials for more than 50 of its products.
     -- Summary from Advertising Age: @
     -- Image from Life magazine ad, June 10, 1966

Note: The exact date of when the first ad ran (print or TV) is unclear. In an email, Leo Burnett Worldwide says the agency won the company's refrigerated dough account in March 1965, with the idea for the Doughboy conceived in the fall of 1965, making it more likely that the character did not appear until 1966.

* "The creation of Poppin' Fresh" (General Mills): @
* Entry from "Food and Drink in American History: A 'Full Course' Encyclopedia" (edited by Andrew F. Smith, 2013): @
* Pillsbury Doughboy Collectibles: @
* Early TV ad: @
* Obituaries for Rudolph Perz, who died in 2015: @ (Advertising Age) @ (New York Times) and @ (Washington Post) 
* Top 10 icons of 20th century (Advertising Age): @
* "Memorable advertising icons" (CBS News): @


October 1965: 'Midlife crisis'

The term is coined by psychologist and social analyst Elliot Jaques in his paper "Death and the Mid-Life Crisis," published in the International Journal of Psychoanalysis.

As summarized in The Psychoanalytic Quarterly (1967):

At age thirty-five the individual has reached the summit of life and sees a declining path before him with death at its end. This results in a crisis, stronger in some than others, connected with having to accept the reality of one's death. It is a period of anguish and depression at the anticipated loss of one's life and revives the infantile experience of loss of the good object (mother). Working through the infantile experience again increases one's confidence in being able to love and mourn what has been lost and increases the possibility of enjoying full maturity and old age. If creativity is present, it may take on new depths and shades of feeling. Dante's descent through Purgatory is essentially an expression of the mid-life crisis and its resolution.

* Complete text as reprinted in "Is It Too Late? Key Papers on Psychoanalysis and Ageing" (2006): @
* Entry from (includes links to various summations): @
* Entry from Psychology Today: @
* "Middle Age Couples Are In Comfortable Rut" (Alison Goddard, Women's Medical News Service, 1970): @
* "Passages: Predictable Crises of Adult Life" (Gail Sheehy, 1976): @; author's website: @
* "Men in Midlife Crisis" (Jim Conway, 1997): @
* "The Existential Necessity of Midlife Change" (Carlo Strenger and Arie Ruttenberg, Harvard Business Review, 2008): @
* "Midlife Crisis: A Myth or a Reality in Search of a New Name?" (Vivian Diller, Psychology Today, 2011): @
* "The Myth of the Midlife Crisis" (Anne Tergeson, Wall Street Journal, 2014): @
* "The Intellectual Odyssey of Elliot Jaques: From Alchemy To Science" (Douglas Kirsner, www.psychoanalysis-and-therapy-com): @
* Obituaries for Jaques, who died in 2003: @ (The New York Times) and @ (The Guardian)
* Midlife Club: @
* The World of Dante (University of Virginia): @
* Danteworlds (University of Texas at Austin): @


October 1965: Gatorade

    Gatorade was the result of an offhand question posed in 1965 by assistant football coach Dewayne Douglas to Dr. J. Robert Cade, a professor renal medicine: "Why don't football players ever urinate during a game?" Cade and his team of researchers -- Drs. Alejando de Quesada, Jim Free and Dana Shires -- began investigating dehydration on the sports field -- a topic on which no reliable data existed.
     They soon designed and tested a drink that replaced the electrolytes lost through sweat during intense exercise. With the permission of the coaches, Cade's team was allowed to test the drink on the freshman football team, which unexpectedly beat the upperclassmen in a practice session (Friday, October 1). Ray Graves, Florida's head coach, immediately ordered up a large batch for his varsity squad, and on Saturday, October 2, the Gators upset the fifth-ranked LSU Tigers, 14-7.
     -- Summary from Cade Museum for Creativity + Invention, Gainesville, Florida
     -- Photo of Florida offensive coordinator Ed Kensler and quarterback Steve Spurrier, September 1966; in the early days players drank the mixture from milk cartons provided by the university's Department of Dairy Science. Image from University of Florida.

* "Gators Do It Again, 14-7" (Ocala Star-Banner, October 3, 1965): @
* "The Taste That's Gatorade" (Newspaper Enterprise Association, April 18, 1967): @
* "Gatorade Gives the Gators Their GO!" (All Florida magazine, April 23, 1967): @
* "Guzzling Gatorade" (Red Smith, September 7, 1967): @
* "The Bottle and the Babe" (Sports Illustrated, July 1, 1968): @
* Interview with Robert Cade (1996; University of Florida Digital Collections): @
* "Gatorade: The Idea That Launched an Industry" (Office of Research, University of Florida, 2003): @ 
* "First in Thirst: How Gatorade Turned the Science of Sweat Into a Cultural Phenomenon" (Darren Rovell, 2006): @
* University of Florida historical marker (dedicated 2007): @
* "Raise a Glass to the Father of Energy Drinks" (New York Times, 2007): @
* A Little Glucose, A Little Sodium, One Giant Legend" (The Post, Health Science Center, University of Florida, December 2007-January 2008, page 4): @
* "Dr. Cade Wins the Orange Bowl" (chapter from "It Happened in Florida: Remarkable Events That Shaped Florida History," 2009): @ 
* "Waterlogged: The Serious Problem of Overhydration in Endurance Sports" (Tim Noakes, 2012): @
* "Gator Go: The Story of a Failed Sports Drink" (Home: Living in the Heart of Florida magazine, October 2014): @ 
* "Lightning in a Bottle" (SportsBusiness Daily, 2015): @
* "Innovation Turns 50" (Office of Research, University of Florida): @
* "The Sweat Solution" (ESPN Films, 2015): @


Wednesday, September 29, 1965: National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities

President Johnson signs P.L. 89-209, the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act. This piece of legislation established the National Endowment on the Arts and the Humanities Foundation as an umbrella for the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), and their respective councils. The NEA begins its first fiscal year with a budget $2.5 million dollars, and fewer than a dozen employees. Six programs are started in that first year, Music, Dance, Literature, Visual Arts, Theater, and Education -- while some 22 institutions and 135 individual artists are funded by the agency.
     -- From NEA website: @

* Text of act (Government Printing Office): @
* Johnson's remarks (American Presidency Project): @
* "How NEH Got Its Start" (NEH website): @
* "National Endowment for the Arts: A History, 1965-2008" (NEA, 2009): @
* "First NEA Grant Awarded to The American Ballet Theatre" (December 20, 1965; NEA website): @
* "Federalizing the Muse: United States Arts Policy and the National Endowment for the Arts, 1965-1980" (Donna M. Binkiewicz, 2004): @
* "Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices" (edited by Roger Chapman and James Ciment, 2014): @
* "Arts, Humanities, and Politics" (from "American Political Culture: An Encyclopedia," 2015): @


Saturday, September 25, 1965: 'In Cold Blood'

The first installment of Truman Capote's four-part series is published in The New Yorker magazine. It would be published in book form in January 1966.

* First installment ( @
* Second through fourth installments (; subscription required): @
* Book: @
* "Horror Spawns A Masterpiece" (Life magazine, January 7, 1966): @
* "The Story Behind a Nonfiction Novel" (George Plimpton, The New York Times, January 16, 1966): @
* Review by Stanley Kauffmann, The New Republic (January 22, 1966): @
* "Truman Capote and the Legacy of 'In Cold Blood' " (Ralph F. Voss, 2011): @ 
* (Blue Ridge Community College; includes links to resources and documents): @


September 1965: Television debuts

All summaries taken from listings in various newspapers. 

'Run For Your Life'
Debut: Monday, September 13, NBC
Summary: At the outset of this drama series, hero Ben Gazzara is given two years or so to live, which prompts the rather slight premise of cramming a lifetime of incidents into his remaining days and nights.

'My Mother the Car'
Debut: Tuesday, September 14, NBC
Summary: The radio on a used car bought by a young man carries the voice of his departed mother, who says she is going to look after him.

'F Troop'
Debut: Tuesday, September 14, ABC
Summary: The place is Fort Courage, manned by devout cowards in the postbellum west. There's really no reason for Fort Courage, because the Indians are in cahoots with the cavalrymen, but occasionally, just to make things look good for the war department, the soldiers and the Indians stage a little mock war.

'Green Acres'
Debut: Wednesday, September 15, CBS
Summary: Eddie Albert and Eva Gabor playing city husband and wife who set up housekeeping in the country.

'Lost in Space'
Debut: Wednesday, September 15, CBS
Summary: Don't let anyone tell you otherwise, this is a space opera for the kids and they should love it. And if you're older and inclined toward science fiction, the production is first-rate and should hold you, too. The action takes place in 1997 and it's about a space expedition that's thrown off course by the presence of an enemy spy.

Debut: Wednesday, September 15, ABC
Summary: Here's a series that's strictly for the teen crowd that loves the beach party type film. Adults will find some solace in the fine performance of Don Porter as the intelligent father coping with the problems of his irrepressible 15-year-old daughter while trying to fend off the well-meaning interference of her sister and her buttinsky husband. Sally Field mugs and grimaces her way through the Gidget role.

'The Big Valley'
Debut: Wednesday, September 15, ABC
Summary: Give this series a chance. Tonight's introduction spends too much time setting the scene and introducing the various characters and their potential personal conflicts. The people seem interesting enough and the series comes close enough to "Bonanza" to warrant as much success as that series. The actual story is a simple one about the mean railroad against the decent settlers.

'I Spy'
Debut: Wednesday, September 15, NBC
Summary: One of the more promising of the new series, this one co-stars actor Robert Culp and comedian Bill Cosby (who reveals himself to be a surprisingly good actor) as secret agents who don't mind romping all over the globe in order to fulfill their missions.

'Hogan's Heroes'
Debut: Friday, September 17, CBS
Summary: If you're willing to accept the fact that life in a German prisoner of war camp was a ball, this series brings you vivid slapstick substantiation. The camp is really run by Col.  Hogan (Bob Crane) of the air corps, under the noses of his captors. His men forge passport, smuggle spies, print counterfeit money, have a barbershop and engage in all the little niceties they wouldn't have if they were back with their own forces.

'The Wild Wild West'
Debut: Friday, September 17, CBS
Summary: The perils of an "undercover agent" in this one-hour action series are given added piquancy by the unique character of the time and setting -- the American frontier at its most turbulent.

'Honey West'
Debut: Friday, September 17, ABC
Summary: Anne Francis stars as a private eye who's quite an eyeful. Her partner tries to keep her out of trouble, but this honey attracts it.

'Get Smart'
Debut: Saturday, September 18, NBC
Summary: Starring Don Adams in a new half-hour comedy-adventure color series spoofing the current rage and cloak-and-dagger heroics. Adams portrays Maxwell Smart, Secret Agent 86, who has been carefully trained by a top-secret government organization known as CONTROL. Smart speaks several languages, has a working familiarity with every deadly weapon, is adept and karate and judo, and combines this knowledge with a zealous inefficiency and a remarkable lack of insight. But Smart means business in CONTROL's ceaseless conflict with the nefarious agents of KAOS. Despite Smart's incredible ineptness, he will manage each week to befuddle the enemy, with the aid of Secret Agent 99 (Barbara Feldon.)

'I Dream of Jeannie'
Debut: Saturday, September 18, NBC
Summary: A young astronaut is stranded on a mission and opens a bottle from which pops a beautiful genie who proceeds to complicated his life. 

'The FBI'
Debut: Sunday, September 19, ABC
Summary: Spellbinding stories based on cases in the files of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, linked with the personal drama of its agents. 


Thursday, September 9, 1965: Hurricane Betsy

Hurricane Betsy, its awesome winds swelling to a top 150 miles per hour, slapped the southern tip of Louisiana on Thursday night and pushed on towards sprawling New Orleans and the plush Mississippi resort coast. The leading edge of the 500-mile-wide storm struck the Mississippi River Delta -- which juts south into the churning Gulf of Mexico -- just after dark. Grand Isle, 55 miles south of New Orleans, was struck by 75 mile an hour hurricane winds, as was Burrwood -- southernmost point in Louisiana.
     -- Associated Press, September 10: @

The tropical storm season, notable for billion dollar Hurricane Betsy, ended yesterday. There were four hurricanes and two tropical storms during the season that began June 1, but Betsy was the only hurricane to strike the United States. She took a heavier toll in damage than the San Francisco fire and the Alaska earthquake combined. Betsy's damages totaled $1,419,830, 429.
     -- United Press International, December 1: @

-- Tracking map from U.S. Weather Bureau preliminary report (September 15, 1965): @

* Summary (, University of Rhode Island): @
* Summary ("Encyclopedia of Hurricanes, Typhoons and Cyclones" (David Longshore, 2008): @
* "The thirty costliest mainland United States tropical cyclones, 1900-2013" (Hurricane Research Division, National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration; dollars not adjusted for inflation): @
* "A Hurricane Called Betsy" (film from Office of Civil Defense, Department of Defense, 1966): @
* "The Hurricane Season of 1965" (U.S. Weather Bureau, March 1966): @


1965: Operation Match

In the Old World, the marriage broker learned the personality traits and financial status of all eligible men and women and did a fairly successful job of matching compatible types.
     Today, like almost any other project in the United States, the match can be programmed by the use of IBM Computer 7090.
     The computer is part of the program called Operation Match originated by two Harvard University students who now use the system on 500 college campuses in the U.S., England and Canada.
     The marriage broker had his fee, so does the computer -- $3 apiece. But the computer also wants answers to 105 questions such as religion, musical preferences, sports and personality tests. Then it will find a person ranging in age from 17 to 27 who seems compatible with the first set of responses.
     -- "IBM Computer Pairing Off Students on 500 Campuses" (United Press International, November 1965): @

* " 'Match' Eliminates Much Hit-Or-Miss; May Make Some UNC Misses Into Mrs." (The Daily Tar Heel, September 23, 1965): @
* "IBM Mating Hits Penn" (The Daily Pennsylvanian, October 14): @
* "$3 Will Get A Date With 'Computer Gal' " (The Pittsburgh Press, October 24): @
* "Operation Match" (The Harvard Crimson, November 3): @
* " 'Operation Match' Dates On Way" (The Daily Illini, December 1): @
* "boy ... girl ... computer" (Look magazine, February 22, 1966): @
* "Matching Them Up" (Harvard magazine, 2003): @
* "Looking for Someone" (The New Yorker, 2011): @
* "Love in the Time of Algorithms: What Technology Does to Meeting and Mating" (Dan Slater, 2013): @
* "This 50-year-old app foretold the future of dating and socializing online" (Fusion, 2015): @
* "What Online Dating Was Like In The 1960s" (video, FiveThirtyEight, 2015): @ 


1965: 'Things Go Better with Coke'

Aretha Franklin, Ray Charles, The Who, Petula Clark, Roy Orbison, the Supremes, Tom Jones ... these were just some of the popular musical artists who recorded advertising spots using Coca-Cola's slogan "Things Go Better With Coke" starting in 1965. The artists did not perform a standard jingle; instead, the radio ads mirrored their musical styles (or their hit songs) and incorporated the slogan.

* "How Coca-Cola Invited Music's Biggest Stars to 'Swing the Jingle' in the 1960s" (from Coca-Cola Co.): @
* "Swing the Jingle!" (partial list of artists; Coca-Cola Co.): @
* "Coca-Cola Commercials" (YouTube channel): @
* Record covers ( @
* "Things Go Better with Coke: Sixties Coca-Cola Commercials 1965-69" (CD; @
* "Coca-Cola Commercials" (CD; @
* "Coca-Cola Uncorks Teen Radio Drive" (Billboard magazine, July 10, 1965): @
* "Coke to Aim at Ethnic Groups" (Billboard, October 15, 1966): @
* "A History of Coca-Cola Advertising Slogans" (Coca-Cola Co.): @
* "Brand Image" (Michael Austin; from "Music in the Social & Behavioral Sciences: An Encyclopedia, 2014): @ 
* "For God, Country, and Coca-Cola: The Definitive History of the Great American Soft Drink and the Company That Makes It" (Mark Pendergrast, 2013): @
* "As Heard on TV: Popular Music in Advertising" (Bethany Klein, 2009): @


Sunday, September 5, 1965: 'Hippie'

Following in the line of hep/hip and hipster, the term comes into wider use after Michael Fallon's series of stories for the San Francisco Examiner (and later with San Francisco Chronicle columnist Herb Caen's frequent use of the term). The articles also serve to put San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district at the center of the counterculture movement.

-- Image from @

Other early uses
* "Certainly most musicians in their teens start out as what people call "church" rather than as hippies." ("What's Wrong with the Clubs," Kenneth Rexroth, Metronome magazine, May 1961): @
* "Do What the Hippies Do" (song by Freddy Cannon, 1963): @
* "Where do all the hippies meet?" (from "South Street," song by The Orlons, 1963): @
* "New York hippies have a new kick -- baking marijuana in cookies" (Dorothy Kilgallen, June 1963): @
* "... finally the bar reaches a sort of equilibrium, the hippies return and the cycle starts all over again." ("Baby Beatniks Spark Bar Boom on East Side," Sally Kempton, The Village Voice, September 10, 1964): @
* "Their music is Berry-chuck and all the Chicago hippies." (Andrew Loog Oldham, liner notes for "The Rolling Stones, Now!", released February 1965): @
* ... "a kind of glorious spokesman for the pubescent hippie." (Gary Greene, writing about Bob Dylan, Tucson Daily Citizen, July 24, 1965; subscription required): @
* "The result is a thoroughly likable, relaxed performance of a well-educated hippie who moves through his role with no reference to the fact that he is a Negro." (United Press International article on Bill Cosby, September 28, 1965): @

* "American Hippies" (W.J. Rorabaugh, 2015): @
* "American Countercultures: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, Alternative Lifestyles and Radical Ideas in U.S. History" (edited by Gina Misiroglu, 2015): @
* Entry from "The New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English" (edited by Tom Dalzell and Terry Victor, 2013): @
* "Hippies: A Guide to an American Subculture" (Micah L. Issitt, 2009): @
* "Hip: The History" (John Leland, 2004): @
* "Hippie" (Barry Miles, 2005): @
* "San Francisco: A Cultural and Literary History" (Mick Sinclair, 2004): @
* "Debating the Counterculture: Ecstasy and Anxiety Over the Hip Alternative" (article by Michael Wm. Doyle, from "The Columbia Guide to America in the 1960s," 2001): @
* "Beneath the Diamond Sky: Haight Ashbury 1965-1970" (Barney Hoskyns, 1997): @
* "The Haight-Ashbury: A History" (Charles Perry, 1984): @ 
* "Defining 'hippy' " (audio from John Gilliland's "The Pop Chronicles," 1969): @
* "The Social History of the Hippies" (Warren Hinckle, Ramparts, March 1967): @ 


September 1965: Lead pollution

In the 1965 paper entitled "Contaminated and Natural Lead Environments of Man," Clair C. Patterson made his first attempt to dispel the then prevailing view that industrial lead had increased environmental lead levels by no more than a factor of approximately two over natural levels. ... He compiled the amounts of industrial lead entering the environment from gasoline, solder, paint and pesticides and showed that they involved very substantial quantities of lead compared to the expected natural flux. He estimated the lead concentration in blood for many Americans to be over 100 times that of the natural level, and within about a factor of two of the accepted limit for symptoms of lead poisoning to occur.
     -- From "Clair Cameron Patterson, 1922-1995: A Biographical Memoir" (George R. Tilton, 1998): @

A California geochemist presented in detail yesterday his argument that lead was contaminating the environment to a dangerous degree. A preliminary report by Dr. Clair C. Patterson, a research associate at the California Institute of Technology, was presented earlier in the week, and provoked the lead industry, the petroleum industry (which adds lead to gasoline) and at least one Public Health specialist to challenge his conclusions. The chief issues are whether the lead content in human blood has sharply risen and whether the level is dangerous.
     -- From "Warning is Issued on Lead Poisoning / But Findings of Geochemist on Coast Are Disputed" (New York Times, September 12, 1965): @

* Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement (1995): @
* Interview with Patterson (California Institute of Technology, 1995): @
* "Protecing Public Health and the Environment: Implementing the Precautionary Principle" (edited by Carolyn Raffensperger and Joel Tickner, 1999): @ 
* "Lead in the Human Environment" (Committee on Lead in the Human Environment, National Research Council, 1980): @
* "Brush with Death: A Social History of Lead Poisoning" (Christian Warren, 2000): @
* "Illness and the Environment: A Reader in Contested Medicine" (2000): @
* "Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of Industrial Pollution" (Gerald Markowitz and David Rosner, 2002): @
* "Clair Patterson's Battle Against Lead Pollution" (Rebecca Adler, thesis, 2006): @
* "Lead Wars: The Politics of Science and the Fate of America's Children" (Markowitz and Rosner, 2013): @
* "The Clean Room" ("Cosmos" episode, April 2014): @ 


September 1965: Tiger Beat

Founded by Charles and Ira Laufer, Tiger Beat debuts and quickly rivals 16 magazine in its teen-crush coverage of pop stars (particularly the photos).

* Official website: @
* Website of former editor Ann Moses: @
* "The Rise of Tiger Beat and The Laufer Company magazines in the 1960s" (from Rewind the Fifties): @
* "Tiger Beat vs. 16" (from Mrs. Neugast's Fan Worship Page): @
* Covers, 1965-1969 ( @
* Covers ( @
* The Monkees Live Almanac (search for Tiger Beat): @
* Articles on The Monkees (from fan site Sunshine Factory): @
* Excerpt from "Girl Culture: An Encyclopedia" (edited by Claudia A. Mitchell and Jacqueline Reid-Walsh, 2007): @
* Lloyd Thaxton obituary (Los Angeles Times, 2008): @
* Charles Laufer obituary (New York Times, 2011): @
* Laufer obituary (Los Angeles Times): @


September 1965: Eight-tracks in cars

Starting with its 1966 models, Ford is the first American automaker to offer eight-track players (as an optional installment for around $130).

-- Top image from Mustang specs (Ford publication): @
-- Middle image from The Kansas City Times (October 6, 1965)
-- Bottom image from United Press International (December 1965)

* "Ford Will Offer Motorola Tape Units in 1966 Cars" (Billboard magazine, April 3, 1965): @
* "RCA Fires 175-Title Burst With Release of Stereo 8 Cartridges" (Billboard, September 25, 1965): @
* "Tape for Turnpikes" (High Fidelity magazine, June 1965, page 42): @
* "Lear Jet 8-Track Recorder May Be Tape 'Breakthrough' " (United Press International, January 3, 1966): @
* "Stereo In Your Car" (High Fidelity, May 1966, page 58): @
* The Rise and Fall of the 8-Track" (Doug Hinman and Brabazon, 1994): @
* "A History of The Eight Track Tape" (David Morton, 1995): @
* "The 8-Track Cartridge" (from "Magnetic Recording: The First 100 Years," edited by Eric D. Daniel, C. Denis Mee, Mark H. Clark, 1999): @
* 8-Track Heaven (website): @
* Mustang TV ads: @ and @
* Thunderbird TV ad: @
* Optional equipment, 1966 Thunderbird ( @ 

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