The '60s at 50

9.01.2015

Thursday, September 9, 1965: Hurricane Betsy


Hurricane Betsy, its awesome winds swelling to a top 150 miles per hour, slapped the southern tip of Louisiana on Thursday night and pushed on towards sprawling New Orleans and the plush Mississippi resort coast. The leading edge of the 500-mile-wide storm struck the Mississippi River Delta -- which juts south into the churning Gulf of Mexico -- just after dark. Grand Isle, 55 miles south of New Orleans, was struck by 75 mile an hour hurricane winds, as was Burrwood -- southernmost point in Louisiana.
     -- Associated Press, September 10: @

The tropical storm season, notable for billion dollar Hurricane Betsy, ended yesterday. There were four hurricanes and two tropical storms during the season that began June 1, but Betsy was the only hurricane to strike the United States. She took a heavier toll in damage than the San Francisco fire and the Alaska earthquake combined. Betsy's damages totaled $1,419,830, 429.
     -- United Press International, December 1: @

-- Tracking map from U.S. Weather Bureau preliminary report (September 15, 1965): @

* Summary (www.hurricanescience.org, University of Rhode Island): @
* Summary ("Encyclopedia of Hurricanes, Typhoons and Cyclones" (David Longshore, 2008): @
* "The thirty costliest mainland United States tropical cyclones, 1900-2013" (Hurricane Research Division, National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration; dollars not adjusted for inflation): @
* "A Hurricane Called Betsy" (film from Office of Civil Defense, Department of Defense, 1966): @
* "The Hurricane Season of 1965" (U.S. Weather Bureau, March 1966): @

8.31.2015

Sunday, September 5, 1965: 'Hippie'


Following in the line of hep/hip and hipster, the term comes into wider use after Michael Fallon's series of stories for the San Francisco Examiner (and later with San Francisco Chronicle columnist Herb Caen's frequent use of the term). The articles also serve to put San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district at the center of the counterculture movement.

-- Image from http://blog.littlehippie.com: @

Other early uses
* "Certainly most musicians in their teens start out as what people call "church" rather than as hippies." ("What's Wrong with the Clubs," Kenneth Rexroth, Metronome magazine, May 1961): @
* "Do What the Hippies Do" (song by Freddy Cannon, 1963): @
* "New York hippies have a new kick -- baking marijuana in cookies" (Dorothy Kilgallen, June 1963): @
* "... finally the bar reaches a sort of equilibrium, the hippies return and the cycle starts all over again." ("Baby Beatniks Spark Bar Boom on East Side," Sally Kempton, The Village Voice, September 10, 1964): @
* "Their music is Berry-chuck and all the Chicago hippies." (Andrew Loog Oldham, liner notes for "The Rolling Stones, Now!", released February 1965): @
* ... "a kind of glorious spokesman for the pubescent hippie." (Gary Greene, writing about Bob Dylan, Tucson Daily Citizen, July 24, 1965; subscription required): @
* "The result is a thoroughly likable, relaxed performance of a well-educated hippie who moves through his role with no reference to the fact that he is a Negro." (United Press International article on Bill Cosby, September 28, 1965): @

References
* "American Hippies" (W.J. Rorabaugh, 2015): @
* "American Countercultures: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, Alternative Lifestyles and Radical Ideas in U.S. History" (edited by Gina Misiroglu, 2015): @
* Entry from "The New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English" (edited by Tom Dalzell and Terry Victor, 2013): @
* "Hippies: A Guide to an American Subculture" (Micah L. Issitt, 2009): @
* "Hip: The History" (John Leland, 2004): @
* "Hippie" (Barry Miles, 2005): @
* "San Francisco: A Cultural and Literary History" (Mick Sinclair, 2004): @
* "Debating the Counterculture: Ecstasy and Anxiety Over the Hip Alternative" (article by Michael Wm. Doyle, from "The Columbia Guide to America in the 1960s," 2001): @
* "Beneath the Diamond Sky: Haight Ashbury 1965-1970" (Barney Hoskyns, 1997): @
* "The Haight-Ashbury: A History" (Charles Perry, 1984): @ 
* "Defining 'hippy' " (audio from John Gilliland's "The Pop Chronicles," 1969): @
* "The Social History of the Hippies" (Warren Hinckle, Ramparts, March 1967): @ 

8.30.2015

September 1965: Lead pollution

In the 1965 paper entitled "Contaminated and Natural Lead Environments of Man," Clair C. Patterson made his first attempt to dispel the then prevailing view that industrial lead had increased environmental lead levels by no more than a factor of approximately two over natural levels. ... He compiled the amounts of industrial lead entering the environment from gasoline, solder, paint and pesticides and showed that they involved very substantial quantities of lead compared to the expected natural flux. He estimated the lead concentration in blood for many Americans to be over 100 times that of the natural level, and within about a factor of two of the accepted limit for symptoms of lead poisoning to occur.
     -- From "Clair Cameron Patterson, 1922-1995: A Biographical Memoir" (George R. Tilton, 1998): @

A California geochemist presented in detail yesterday his argument that lead was contaminating the environment to a dangerous degree. A preliminary report by Dr. Clair C. Patterson, a research associate at the California Institute of Technology, was presented earlier in the week, and provoked the lead industry, the petroleum industry (which adds lead to gasoline) and at least one Public Health specialist to challenge his conclusions. The chief issues are whether the lead content in human blood has sharply risen and whether the level is dangerous.
     -- From "Warning is Issued on Lead Poisoning / But Findings of Geochemist on Coast Are Disputed" (New York Times, September 12, 1965): @

* Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement (1995): @
* Interview with Patterson (California Institute of Technology, 1995): @
* "Protecing Public Health and the Environment: Implementing the Precautionary Principle" (edited by Carolyn Raffensperger and Joel Tickner, 1999): @ 
* "Lead in the Human Environment" (Committee on Lead in the Human Environment, National Research Council, 1980): @
* "Brush with Death: A Social History of Lead Poisoning" (Christian Warren, 2000): @
* "Illness and the Environment: A Reader in Contested Medicine" (2000): @
* "Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of Industrial Pollution" (Gerald Markowitz and David Rosner, 2002): @
* "Clair Patterson's Battle Against Lead Pollution" (Rebecca Adler, thesis, 2006): @
* "Lead Wars: The Politics of Science and the Fate of America's Children" (Markowitz and Rosner, 2013): @
* "The Clean Room" ("Cosmos" episode, April 2014): @ 

8.29.2015

September 1965: Tiger Beat




Founded by Charles and Ira Laufer, Tiger Beat debuts and quickly rivals 16 magazine in its teen-crush coverage of pop stars (particularly the photos).

* Official website: @
* Website of former editor Ann Moses: @
* "The Rise of Tiger Beat and The Laufer Company magazines in the 1960s" (from Rewind the Fifties): @
* "Tiger Beat vs. 16" (from Mrs. Neugast's Fan Worship Page): @
* Covers, 1965-1969 (www.hermanshermits.com): @
* Covers (www.oprah.com): @
* The Monkees Live Almanac (search for Tiger Beat): @
* Articles on The Monkees (from fan site Sunshine Factory): @
* Excerpt from "Girl Culture: An Encyclopedia" (edited by Claudia A. Mitchell and Jacqueline Reid-Walsh, 2007): @
* Lloyd Thaxton obituary (Los Angeles Times, 2008): @
* Charles Laufer obituary (New York Times, 2011): @
* Laufer obituary (Los Angeles Times): @

8.28.2015

September 1965: Eight-tracks in cars




Starting with its 1966 models, Ford is the first American automaker to offer eight-track players (as an optional installment for around $130).

-- Top image from Mustang specs (Ford publication): @
-- Middle image from The Kansas City Times (October 6, 1965)
-- Bottom image from United Press International (December 1965)

* "Ford Will Offer Motorola Tape Units in 1966 Cars" (Billboard magazine, April 3, 1965): @
* "RCA Fires 175-Title Burst With Release of Stereo 8 Cartridges" (Billboard, September 25, 1965): @
* "Tape for Turnpikes" (High Fidelity magazine, June 1965, page 42): @
* "Lear Jet 8-Track Recorder May Be Tape 'Breakthrough' " (United Press International, January 3, 1966): @
* "Stereo In Your Car" (High Fidelity, May 1966, page 58): @
* The Rise and Fall of the 8-Track" (Doug Hinman and Brabazon, 1994): @
* "A History of The Eight Track Tape" (David Morton, 1995): @
* "The 8-Track Cartridge" (from "Magnetic Recording: The First 100 Years," edited by Eric D. Daniel, C. Denis Mee, Mark H. Clark, 1999): @
* 8-Track Heaven (website): @
* Mustang TV ads: @ and @
* Thunderbird TV ad: @
* Optional equipment, 1966 Thunderbird (automotivemileposts.com): @ 

8.27.2015

Saturday, August 28, 1965: 'Ask CBS News About Gemini 5'



CBS airs what is believed to be radio's first nationwide call-in show, "Ask CBS News About Gemini 5," taking questions from listeners about the spaceflight. The show was originally scheduled to air on August 21, but aired instead on the 28th after Gemini's launch was delayed.
-- Top image from (Long Beach, Calif.) Independent (August 28)
-- Bottom image from Broadcasting magazine (September 6): @

* "Media, NASA, and America's Quest for the Moon" (Harlen Makemson, 2009): @
* Gemini 5 summary (NASA): @
* Gemini 5 summary (Encyclopedia Astronautica): @
* Gemini 5 summary (Drew ex machina): @ 

8.22.2015

Sunday, August 22, 1965: Juan Marichal and John Roseboro


Photo by Neil Leifer: @


From Sarasota Herald-Tribune: @


Photo by Neil Leifer: @

* "Marichal Clubs Roseboro With a Bat" (New York Times): @
* "The Fight of Their Lives: How Juan Marichal and John Roseboro Turned Baseball's Ugliest Brawl into a Story of Forgiveness and Redemption" (John Rosengren, 2014): @
* Excerpt from "The Fight of Their Lives" (Sports Illustrated, 2014): @
* 2005 story by Gwen Knapp, San Francisco Chronicle: @
* "Incident at Candlestick" (MLB Network, 2009): @
* "What Baseball's Most Famous Brawl Photo Didn't Show You" (Deadspin, 2014): @
* "Juan Marichal clubbed John Roseboro 50 years ago in ugly, iconic incident" (ESPN, 2015): @

8.15.2015

Sunday, August 15, 1965: The Beatles at Shea Stadium


     The sound was unbelievable and more than a little terrifying.
     What started as a joyful shriek quickly became a steady scream, then a deafening howl and finally an ear-splitting roar like the takeoff noise of a giant jet or the launching of a rocket.
     It was the hysterical sound of more than 55,000 Beatles fans -- almost all of them sobbing teen-age girls. And it went on and on and on for the full 30 minutes that the four mop-top minstrels from Liverpool, England, performed Sunday night at Shea Stadium.
     -- United Press International (full story: @)
     -- Photo from New York Daily News

* Summary from Beatles Bible: @
* "There Were Howls at Shea Stadium as Beatles Sang" (Associated Press, August 16, 1965): @
* "Beatlemonium at Stadium -- Youngsters Get Carried Away" (Billboard magazine, August 28, 1965): @
* Excerpt from "Beatles-Discography.com: Day-by-Day Song-by-Song Record-by-Record" (Craig Cross, 2004): @
* "The Beatles at Shea Stadium: The Story Behind Their Greatest Concert" (Dave Schwensen, 2014): @
* "The Shea Stadium Concert" (www.beatlesource.com): @ 

8.11.2015

Wednesday, August 11, 1965: Watts riots begin


Wednesday, August 11
     An estimated 1,000 persons rioted in the Watts district Wednesday night and attacked police and motorists with rocks, bricks and bottles before some 100 officers attempted to quell the five-hour melee by sealing off an eight-block area. ...
     The incident began with a minor disturbance about 7:19 p.m. when California Highway Patrol officers Lee Minikus and Bob Lewis stopped an auto near 116th St. and Avalon Blvd.
     The officers said they attempted to arrest driver Marquette Frye, 21, of 11620 S. Towne St., on suspicion of drunk driving along with his brother, Ronald, 22. 
     But their mother, Rena, 49, who lives near by, approached the scene and began scolding her sons, the officers said.
     The two suspects began resisting arrest and their mother joined them in berating the officers along with a crowd of about 200, they said. The shirt was torn from the back of one of the officers in the ensuing disturbance.
     Minikus and Lewis and radioed for assistance and about 20 city officers responded under a hail of rocks. The officers succeeded in leaving with the three suspects, but a large crowd began to gather at the intersection.
     -- Los Angeles Times: @ 

Thursday, August 12
     Fierce rioting again gripped the Negro section of south Los Angeles tonight. Officials called it the worst racial incident in the city's history.
     Crowds of up to 5,000 Negroes gathered in a 20-block area that had been sealed off by some 100 policemen and more than 300 deputy sheriffs. ...
     Officials were at a loss to explain the cause of the rioting, which started last night after a routine drunken driving arrest. The unusually hot, smoggy weather was doubtless a contributing factor.
     Many Negroes at the scene complained about alleged police brutality but few cited specific instances to support their charges.
     -- New York Times: @ 

Friday, August 13
     National Guardsmen with fixed bayonets marched Friday night into a Negro district where arsonists and looters were out of control and flying bullets killed both police and civilians.
     Four persons, one a deputy sheriff, were reported slain by gunshot just before the first wave of 400 steel-helmeted troops rolled into the community of Watts and quickly took over without incident.
     The area, focal point of rioting for two days, was quiet when guardsmen arrived. All the action was farther north where thousands of Negroes raced through darkness breaking into stores, looting them and igniting many.
     -- Associated Press: @

Saturday, August 14
     The nation's worst Negro uprising in two decades was crushed Saturday by 2,000 rifle-carrying National Guardsmen and armed police but sporadic violence and nearly uncontrolled looting went on throughout the area.
     At least 17 persons were killed, a thousand arrested and "astronomical" damage in the millions was caused in the three days of rioting.
     Police cautioned store owners not to risk lives by defending their property as devastated supermarkets, department stores and shops became targets again for ransacking when troops pulled back to bivouacs. Police rounded up the looters as fast as they could catch them.
     -- United Press International: @
     -- Timeline, Wednesday-Saturday (Australian Associated Press): @ 

Sunday, August 15
     A vast military maneuver Sunday seized, occupied and almost completely controlled a Negro district wracked by five days' violence. But a police officer was shot to death as rampaging Negro mobs carried violence to other areas.
     -- Associated Press: @

Monday, August 16
     Comparative calm settled over the city's troop-encircled Negro riot zone today after a wild night in which violence spread for the first time to other Southern California cities. ...
     After five straight nights of rioting by uncounted thousands of Negroes, police removed most of the barricades in a 42-square-mile "unsafe" zone and this morning residents moved about freely for the first time since Wednesday night.
     -- Associated Press: @ 

Tuesday, August 17
     Violence dwindled today in Los Angeles' vast Negro district after six days of rioting which evangelist Billy Graham called "a dress rehearsal for a revolution." ...
     Courts processed the first of more than 3,000 suspected rioters arrested.
     Food markets opened and clears, wearing pistols, sold food as troops stood guard.
     City and county offices were opened, buses rolled again, mail delivery was resumed, and clean-up crew tackled wreckage left by six days of turmoil.
     Gov. Edmund G. Brown declared the riots ended.
     But 15,000 National Guardsmen still held the 46-square-mile heart of the Los Angeles Negro district sealed within a perimeter of guns.
     -- Associated Press: @

Wednesday, August 18
     Police and National Guardsmen today unleashed a barrage of gunfire into a Black Muslim mosque in the heart of a Negro neighborhood where weeklong rioting had been declared ended. 
     Officers opened up with pistols, rifles and shotguns after several heavily-armed Negroes were reported to have entered the building and fired on police. Eight Negroes suffered head injuries in scuffling with police who charged into the temple.
     -- United Press International: @

Other resources
* "Violence in the City: An End or a Beginning? / A Report by the Governor's Commission on the Los Angeles Riots" (December 1965): @
* Summary from www.findingdulcinea.com: @
* Summary from www.blackpast.org: @
* Summary from Civil Rights Digital Library: @
* Summary from "Encyclopedia of Political Communication" (edited by Lynda Lee Kaid and Christina Holtz-Bacha, 2008): @
* "Watts Annotations" (Los Angeles Times): @
* KTLA audio, August 13, 1965 (pastdaily.com): @
* Life magazine, August 27, 1965: @
* Jet magazine, September 2, 1965: @
* Ebony magazine, October 1965: @
* Newsreel: @ 
* "There's Still Hell to Pay in Watts" (Life magazine, July 15, 1966; excerpt from "Burn, Baby, Burn!," Jerry Cohen and William S. Murphy): @
* Origins of "Burn, Baby! Burn!" (www.magnificentmontague.com): @
* Radio interview with Magnificent Montague (Public Radio Exchange, 2009): @
* "Report Takes Myth Out of That Watts Rioting" (United Press International, September 1, 1966): @
* "A Stranger in the City" (Robert Conot, 1967; from "Perspectives on Black America," 1970): @
* Marquette Frye obituary (Los Angeles Times; 1986): @
* Rena Price obituary (Los Angeles Times; 2013): @
* "Watts Riots Changed the Black Movement for Years Afterward" (United Press International, August 1990): @
* "Fire This Time: The Watts Uprising and the 1960s" (Gerald Horne, 1995): @
* "Burn Baby Burn: Small Business in the Urban Riots of the 1960s" (Jonathan J. Bean, Independent Review, 2000): @
* "Watts Riots, 40 Years Later" (Los Angeles Times, August 11, 2005): @
* "Troubled Pasts: News and the Collective Memory of Social Unrest" (Jill A. Edy, 2006): @ 

8.06.2015

Friday, August 6, 1965: Voting Rights Act



WASHINGTON -- President Johnson signed his monumental Negro voting rights bill today, treading the century-old path of Abraham Lincoln, and declaring the new law is a triumph for freedom as great as any won on the battlefield.
     First, in the vaulted rotunda of the Capitol, Johnson said the measure will "strike away the last major shackles of those fierce and ancient bonds" which have bound American Negroes. ... Then he moved to the ornate President's Room off the Senate chamber, to etch his signature with dozens of souvenir pens, writing on a desk that Secretary Felton Johnson said Lincoln used in signing a measure to free slaves impressed into war service by the Confederacy. ... 
     By next week, he said, federal officials will be at work in the South, registering Negroes who have been kept from the polling place.
     -- Story from Associated Press (full story: @)
     -- Top photo, Johnson signing bill into law (Corbis); bottom photo, Camden, Alabama, 1966 (Flip Schulke)

* First and last page (www.ourdocuments.gov): @
* Full text (U.S. Statutes at Large, Volume 79, 89th Congress, 1st Session): @
* Text of LBJ speech (LBJ Library): @
* Video of LBJ speech (LBJ Library): @
* Universal Newsreel (Critical Past): @
* Photos (LBJ Library; search for "Voting Rights Act"): @ 
* Photos ("50th Anniversary of the Voting Rights Act," Corbis Images): @
* "Voting Rights Legislation Means Changes For South" (James Marlow, Associated Press, August 9, 1965): @ 
* "A Million New Negro Voters?" (U.S. News & World Report, August 16, 1965; from Library of Congress): @
* "LBJ Signs Voting Bill; Attacks Poll Tax" (Jet magazine, August 19, 1965): @
* "The New Voting Law Goes into Action" (Life magazine, August 20, 1965): @
* "Introduction to Federal Voting Rights Law" (U.S. Department of Justice): @
* "Civil Rights in America: Racial Voting Rights" (National Historic Landmarks Program): @
* "Bending Toward Justice: The Voting Rights Act and the Transformation of American Democracy" (Gary May, 2013): @
* "The Most Fundamental Right: Contrasting Perspectives on the Voting Rights Act" (edited by Daniel McCool, 2012): @
* "Quiet Revolution in the South: The Impact of the Voting Rights Act, 1965-1990" (edited by Chandler Davidson and Bernard Grofman, 1994): @ 

8.05.2015

Thursday, August 5, 1965: CBS report on Cam Ne, South Vietnam



CBS airs Morley Safer's report on U.S. Marines setting fire to houses in Cam Ne, a village southwest of Da Nang Air Base in South Vietnam. Reaction ranges from unease to outrage (by viewers angry at CBS, as well as by President Johnson in a blistering phone call to CBS President Frank Stanton). The report is considered a milestone moment in media coverage of the Vietnam War.
     -- The incident at Cam Ne took place on August 3, while Safer's report aired on August 5. The story at top appeared August 3 in the Logansport (Indiana) Pharos-Tribune; the photo ran August 7 in The La Crosse (Wisconsin) Tribune.

* Watch the segment ("The 6:00 Follies: Hegemony, Television News, and the War of Attrition," Elizabeth J. Burnette, American Studies at the University of Virginia, 2005): @
* Video interview with Safer (Archive of American Television, 2000): @
* Account from Safer (from "Reporting America at War," PBS, 2003): @
* "Marines Ordered to Stop Burning Viet Nam Villages" (Los Angeles Times, August 23, 1965): @
* "What Really Happened at Cam Ne" (www.historynet.com, 2006): @
* "When The World Began Watching" (The Alicia Patterson Foundation, 2011): @
* "The Power and The Profits: Part II" (David Halberstam, The Atlantic magazine, February 1976): @
* "The Powers That Be" (Halberstam, 1975): @
* Video interview with Halberstam (WGBH, 1979): @
* Excerpt from "The Uncensored War: The Media and Vietnam" (Daniel C. Hallin, 1986): @
* Excerpt from "The Legacy: The Vietnam War in the American Imagination" (from chapter titled "Vietnam and the Press," Michael X. Delli Carpini; book edited by D. Michael Shafer, 1990): @
* Excerpt from "The Sixties: From Memory to History" (from chapter titled "And That's The Way It Was: The Vietnam War on the Network Nightly News," Chester J. Pach Jr.; book edited by David Farber, 1994): @
* "Excerpt from "The U.S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships, Part IV" (William C. Gibbons, 1995): @
* Excerpt from "The End of Victory Culture: Cold War America and the Disillusioning of a Generation" (Tom Engelhardt, 1995): @
* Excerpt from "Encyclopedia of Media and Propaganda in Wartime America" (edited by Martin J. Manning and Clarence R. Wyatt, 2011): @ 

8.01.2015

August 1965: Up with People



Moral Re-Armament was an international religious movement that developed in 1938 from the ideas of an American, Rev. N.D. Buchman, and his students called the Oxford Group. Buchman headed the MRA until his death in 1961. The Oxford Group believed the world in the late 1930s needed moral re-armament, not military re-armament. Initially based in Christian roots, the group grew to encompass people of various backgrounds and faith who believed in the "Four Absolutes" -- absolute honesty, absolute purity, absolute unselfishness and absolute love. (From Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University: @)

Up with People -- essentially the Moral Re-Armament doctrine set to upbeat songs -- emerged from the group's annual conference at Mackinac Island, Michigan, in June 1965. The show by the troupe of young people, called "Sing-Out '65," was first staged in Stamford, Connecticut, in early August. Among the songs was "Up with People!", which the touring group later took as its name.
     -- Images from program for "The Colwell Brothers in Sing-Out '65" (University of Arizona): @

* Up with People website: @
* Timeline (From UWP): @
* Up with People alumni website: @
* Up with People Digital Collection (University of Arizona): @
* "Up with People!" song (audio): @
* Up with People YouTube channel: @
* "Change Yourself -- And You Can Change the World" (Kiplinger's Personal Finance, June 1953): @
* "Escalation of an Answer" (Moral Re-Armament advertisement, The Desert Sun, Palm Springs, Calif.; July 12, 1965): @
* "Sing-Out Turns Into Big Thrust" (King Features Syndicate, September 23, 1965): @
* "Moral Re-Armament Plans Revolution of Love, Purity" (United Press International, October 20, 1965): @
* "Smile 'Til It Hurts" (website for 2009 documentary): @
* "Moral Re-Armament: The Reinventions of an American Religious Movement" (Daniel Sack, 2009): @
* "Frank Buchman: A Life" (Garth Lean, 1985): @

7.30.2015

Friday, July 30, 1965: Medicare and Medicaid


INDEPENDENCE, Mo., July 31 -- President Johnson signed his $6.5 billion medicare bill yesterday after journeying more than 1,000 miles to share "this time of triumph" with former President Truman. The new law, said the 81-year-old former president, will mean dignity, not charity "for those of us who have moved to the sidelines." Then, one hand on his cane, Mr. Truman stepped aside as Mr. Johnson told how the vast program of medical insurance for the elderly would help millions of Americans. ... 
     This document was a 133-page bill which soared past its final congressional test Wednesday. At a $6.5 billion price tag, it will provide hospital insurance for Americans over 65, set up a voluntary program to cover the doctors' bills of elderly Americans and boost Social Security benefits. Mr. Johnson's signature set in motion machinery that will reach Social Security pensioners in September -- in the form of retroactive increases in their government checks. The health insurance programs go into operation next July 1.
     -- From The Associated Press (full story: @)

* "Here's What Medicare Will Cover" (Newspaper Enterprise Association, 1965): @
* "Who's Eligible for Medicare?" (NEA, 1965): @
* "Happy Birthday, Medicare!" (Government Printing Office, 2014; includes link to full text of law): @
* President Johnson's remarks (LBJ Library): @
* "50th Anniversary of Medicare and Medicaid" (LBJ Library): @
* Summary (U.S. Senate): @
* Summary (Harry S. Truman Library and Museum): @
* Summary and links (www.policyalmanac.org): @
* Medicare Timeline (Kaiser Family Foundation): @
* "Generations: Medicare at 50 Years" (Kaiser Family Foundation): @
* "When Medicare launched, nobody had any clue whether it would work" (The Washington Post, 2013): @


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