Thursday, December 31, 1964: Bracero program

The Mexican Farm Labor Program, also known as the Bracero Program, was the result of a series of agreements between Mexico and the United States in response to the demand for agricultural labor during World War II. ... The Mexican workers were called braceros because they worked with their arms and hands (bracero comes from the Spanish brazo, or arm). The bilateral agreement guaranteed prevailing wages, health care, adequate housing, and board. ... Nationally, the Bracero Program continued until December 31, 1964, with nearly 4.5 million Mexicans making the journey during the program's twenty-two year existence. Braceros entered the United States under six-month to twelve-month contracts and were assigned to regions throughout the country. ... Once the contract expired, each bracero was required to return to Mexico and sign another contract in order to return to the United States to work. 

-- Text from "Bracero Program" (The Oregon Encyclopedia): @
-- Image from "Bittersweet Harvest: The Bracero Program, 1942-1964" (Smithsonian Institution): @

* Bracero History Archive: @
* "Los Braceros" (www.farmworkers.org): @
* "Los Braceros: Strong Arms to Aid the U.S.A." (KVIE, Sacramento, Calif.): @
* "Bracero Program" (Texas State Historical Association): @
* "Bracero Program" (University of Texas): @
* "Bracero Program Establishes New Migration Patterns" (Oakland Museum of California): @
* "Braceros: History, Compenstion" (Rural Migration News, University of California Davis): @
* "The Bracero Program and Its Aftermath: An Historical Summary" (State of California, 1965): @
* "Opportunity or Exploitation: The Bracero Program" (National Museum of American History): @
* "Bracero program ends ... who'll harvest?" (Associated Press): @
* "Mexico Immigrant Labor History" (PBS): @ 

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