March-April, 1964: Malcolm X

Sunday, March 8
Malcolm X, outspoken Black Muslim advocate of racial separation, has defected from the parent organization to form his own mosque to promote "active self-defense against white separatists in all part of the country."
     -- Associated Press, March 9 (link to story: @)
* "Malcolm X Tells Of Breaks With Clay" (Chicago Daily News Service, March 22): @
* Excerpt from "History of American Political Thought" (2003): @
* Excerpt from "Malcolm X: The FBI File" (Clayborn Carson, 2012): @

Thursday, March 26
Malcolm and the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. meet for the first and only time. Both men were in Washington to hear debate on civil rights legislation.
-- Photo by Marion S. Trikosko, U.S. News & World Report; from Library of Congress collection
* Excerpt from "Malcolm & Martin & America: A Dream or a Nightmare" (James H. Cone, 1991): @
* "The Unfinished Dialogue of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X" (Clayborn Carson, 2005): @
* "Negro Plans New Form of Protests" (Associated Press, March 26): @
* Earlier post on "The Negro and the American Promise" (June 24, 1963): @

Friday, April 3 and Sunday, April 12
Gives "The Ballot or the Bullet" speeches in Cleveland and Detroit.
     Many took from the speech only the message of violence; he had recently promoted the formation of "rifle clubs: and reiterated that blacks were constitutionally within their rights to defend themselves and their property if the goverment failed to do so. However, what had changed dramatically from years past and the rhetoric of the Nation of Islam was the possibility for reform through voting.
     --- From "The Portable Malcolm X Reader" (Manning Marable and Garrett Felber, 2013): @
* Transcript of April 3 speech (from TeachingAmericanHistory.org): @
* Transcript of April 12 speech (from "Say It Loud! Great Speeches on Civil Rights and African American Identity" (2013): @
* Audio of April 12 speech: @
* "Use Bullets To Get Ballot, Malcolm X Tells Negroes" (Associated Press, March 22): @
* Earlier post on "Message to the Grass Roots" (November 10, 1963): @ 

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