October 1966: Founding of Black Panther Party for Self-Defense

The Black Panther Party was created October 15, 1966, in Oakland, California, by Merritt Junior College students Huey P. Newton (right in undated photo above) and Bobby Seale. The BPP offered a revolutionary alternative to traditional civil rights tactics, strategies, and goals, inspired by the revolutionary nationalist theory of Malcolm X, the BPP spiritual and intellectual father. Newton and Seal intended to extend his legacy to its next logical step -- revolution.
     -- From "Encyclopedia of African American History" (2010): @

Saturday, October 15
* Platform text (The Sixties Project, University of Virginia): @
     -- Note: The book "Black Against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party" (Joshua Bloom and Waldo E. Martin Jr., 2013) calls into question this date: @

Saturday, October 29
     BERKELEY, Calif. (UPI) -- "Black power" advocate Stokely Carmichael bitterly condemned America as a racist nation Saturday before a cheering throng of 12,000 on the University of California campus.
     He scorned the United States' role in Viet Nam and urged the white students and young Negroes in the audience to say "hell no" to their draft boards.
     Carmichael flew here to participate in the all-day campus "black power" meeting after defying his own draft board in New York to take him into the Army. The crowd in the outdoor Greek theater were mostly white students, but there were many Negroes, some from off-campus.

* Text/audio of Carmichael speech (American Rhetoric): @
* "Stokely Carmichael, 'Black Power' " (Kalen M.A. Churcher, Niagra University, 2009): @

* Chronology and audio/video (UC Berkeley Library): @
* Summary from www.marxists.org: @
* Summary from Amistad Digital Resource: @
* "On the Ideology of the Black Panther Party" (Eldridge Cleaver): @
* "In Defense of 'Black Power' " (David Danzig, Commentary magazine, September 1, 1966): @
* Negro Digest (October 1966): @
* Negro Digest (November 1966): @
* Negro Digest (December 1966): @
* Website of Bobby Seale: @
* Related publications (Michigan State University): @
* More resources (art-of-protest.net): @
* More resources (Freedom Archives): @
* More resources (SNCC Legacy Project): @
* Earlier post on Lowndes County Freedom Organization (December 1965): @ 


Friday, October 7, 1966: Study of UFOs

The Air Force announced today the University of Colorado has been chosen to undertake independent investigations of reports on unidentified flying objects. Air Force Secretary Harold Brown said the university is being awarded a research agreement of about $300,000 "to analyze phenomena associated with UFO sightings."
     The university, located at Boulder, Colo., will also make recommendations on the Air Force's methods of investigation and evaluating flying saucer reports, a program now known as Project Blue Book, dating back to 1948.
     * "University of Colorado Will Investigate UFOs" (Associated Press): @
     * Image from www.ufoevidence.org (Michigan sightings, 1966): @

* April 5, 1966, hearing by Armed Services Committee, U.S. House of Representatives: @
* "Facts About Unidentified Flying Objects" (Science Policy Research Division, Library of Congress, May 5, 1966): @
* "Unidentified Flying Objects Research Guide" (Naval History and Heritage Command): @
* "The CIA's role in the Study of UFOs, 1947-1990" (CIA): @
* "Congressional Hearings on UFOs" (www.ufoevidence.org): @
* "Ford Press Releases -- UFO, 1966" (Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library & Museum): @
* Journal of UFO History (November-December 2004): @
* "The 1966 UFO Chronology" (National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena): @
* "Ann Arbor vs. the flying saucers" (Michigan Today, 2014): @
* "The Great Michigan UFO Chase of 1966" (www.ufocasebook.com): @
* "Unidentified Flying Objects -- Project Blue Book" (National Archives): @
* Project Blue Book Archive: @ 


1966: The beginnings of 'tan, rested and ready'

April 1962: 'Sun tanned and rested'
     * "What Republicans Must Do To Regain The Negro Vote" (Ebony): @

October 1966: 'Tanned, fit, relaxed' 
     * "Nixon on the Stump -- An Old Timer at 53" (pictured above; New York Times, October 3, 1966): @
     * Excerpt from "Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America" (Rick Perlstein, 2008): @

October 1968: 'Rested and ready'
     "A chief of staff, Robert Haldeman, hoards the time and energy of the candidate so that Nixon always looks rested and ready." (Life): @

January 1970: 'Tanned, rested and ready' 
     "Now, on the eve of his 57th birthday, Richard Nixon was tanned, rested and ready to leave California's sun for the snow and subfreezing temperature of Washington." (Newsweek): @ 

July 1987: 'Tan, rested and ready' 
     * "Nixon, North Hot Sellers" (Spokane Spokesman-Review, July 11, 1987): @ 
     * "After Nixon and Reagan, Young Republicans Face '88 with Uncertainty" (New York Times, July 11): @ 

     * Other uses of "tanned, rested and ready" (from http://listserv.linguistlist.org/): @

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