1964: Hippocratic Oath

The doctors' code of conduct is brought into the modern era in a version written by Dr. Louis Lasagna, an associate professor at Johns Hopkins Medical School. While the new version was known for its emphasis on patient care and not just disease treatment, it was also notable in that it removed the prohibitions on abortion and euthanasia. In the years that followed Lasagna's version became widely used in medical school ceremonies.
-- Image from a 1595 version in Greek and Latin. Complete page: @

* "Would Hippocrates Rewrite His Oath?" (Lasagna, New York Times Magazine, June 28, 1964; subscription required): @
* "The Hippocratic Oath Today" (Nova Online, 2001): @ 
* "Is the Oath Outdated?" (Doctor's Review, 2009): @ 
* "The History of the Hippocratic Oath: Outdated, Inauthentic, and Yet Still Relevant" (The Einstein Journal of Biology and Medicine, 2010): @
* "Do Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide Violate the Hippocratic Oath?" (www.procon.org): @
* Physician Oaths (Association of American Physicians and Surgeons): @
* Short biography of Louis Lasagna (National Institutes of Health): @
* Louis C. Lasagna Papers, University of Rochester: @ 


Thursday, July 23, 1964: Civil Rights Act arrests

GREENWOOD, Miss., July 24 -- The FBI has made its first arrests under the public accommodations sections of the new Civil Rights Act yesterday.
     Agents of the bureau charged three Greenwood white men with a conspiracy designed to keep a Negro from going to a movie theater. ...
     The FBI charged the three with "unlawfully conspiring to injure, oppress, threaten, and intimidate" Silas McGhee, 21, of Greenwood, "in the free exercise of his right to full and equal enjoyment of a motion picture picture house, the Leflore Theatre."
     On July 16, Mr. McGhee staggered into the Greenwood FBI office, bleeding from head wounds and suffering from shock.
     Mr. McGhee, a staff worker with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committe, said the three, in a pickup truck, forced him at the point of a gun to accompany them.
     He said they asked him if he had been to the movie the previous night, When he replied yes, he said, he was beaten with a pipe and a board.
     -- Associated Press (full story: @)
     -- Photo of Leflore Theatre in the 1940s; from www.aboutgreenwood.ms.com (link: @)

Note: The men were indicted, tried and found innocent.
     * "Federal Jury Indicts Three" (United Press International, January 1965): @
     * "Find Mississippians Innocent in Beating" (UPI, October 1966): @

More about the incident and the McGhee family
* "Freedom Summer Incident Summary by City or County" (Civil Rights in Mississippi Digital Archive; scroll down to Greenwood): @
* "Miss. Woman Arrested After Punching Cop In Nose" (Jet magazine, September 1964): @
* "The McGhees: If You Don't Fight For It, You Don't Need It" (from "I've Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle," Charles M. Payne, 1995): @
* McGhee and his family are mentioned in several passages in "Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years" (Taylor Branch, 1997; search for "McGhee"): @
* Passage from "The Wrong Side of Murder Creek: A White Southerner in the Freedom Movement," Bob Zellner, 2008): @
* "The Shooting of Silas McGhee" (Linda Wetmore Halpern, 2010): @
* Passage from "Student Activism and Civil Rights in Mississippi: Protest Politics and the Struggle for Racial Justice, 1960-1965," James P. Marshall, 2013): @
* "Freedom Summer, 1964: Did It Really Change Mississippi?" (Nikole Hannah-Jones, The Atlantic magazine, July 2014): @

Other resources
* "Saturday, July 6, 1963: Greenwood, Mississippi" (earlier blog post; I'm fairly sure, though not absolutely certain, that the event featuring Pete Seeger and Bob Dylan took place on the McGhee family farm): @
* "Greenwood Theatre Torn Down By City" (Jackson Daily News, January 1969): @ 


Thursday, July 16, 1964: 'Extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice'

Accepting the Republican nomination for president, Arizona Sen. Barry Goldwater tells delegates at the GOP national convention in San Francisco:

I would remind you that extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice. And let me remind you also that moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue.

The "extremism" issue had come largely from New York Gov. Nelson Rockefeller, whose pursuit of the GOP nomination failed as his party embraced more conservative views. Rockefeller (and in turn, the Democrats) warned that the Goldwater forces were a threat to peace and progress.

* Video of speech (C-SPAN via NBC): @ and @
* Transcript of speech (Washington Post via Arizona Historical Foundation): @
* New York Times story, July 15: @
* Associated Press story, July 17 (note error in headline, which says "pursuit of happiness" instead of "pursuit of justice"): @
* United Press International story, July 17: @
* Life magazine, July 24: @
* "Goldwater Clarifies 'Extremism' " (Associated Press, August 10): @
* Party platform (American Presidency Project): @
* Video of first part of Rockefeller speech to the convention (C-SPAN): @
* Audio of entire speech (pastdaily.com): @
* "Remarks on extremism at the 1964 Republican National Convention" (July 14; Rockefeller Archive Center; note: prepared remarks differ from speech): @ and @
* "The 1964 Republican Campaign" ("The Rockefellers," PBS): @
* "Margaret Chase Smith for President" (Maine History Online): @
* "1964: The Conventions" (U.S. Information Agency): @
* "The Delegate" (documentary, National Educational Television): @
* 1964 campaign commercials (The Living Room Candidate, Museum of the Modern Image): @
* "Election of 1964" (from "Presidential Campaigns: Documents Decoded," Daniel M. Shea and Brian M. Harward, 2013): @
* "Overviews & Chronologies: 1964" (Presidential Campaigns & Elections Reference): @
* "LBJ Fights the White Backlash: The Racial Politics of the 1964 Presidential Campaign" (Jeremy D. Mayer, Prologue magazine, National Archives): @
* "1964 Republican Convention: Revolution From The Right" (Rick Perlstein, Smithsonian magazine, August 2008): @
* "Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus" (Perlstein, 2001): @
* "Turning Right in the Sixties: The Conservative Capture of the GOP" (Mary C. Brennan, 1995): @
* Review of "Turning Right" (Matthew Dallek, The Atlantic, 1995): @
* "The Rise of the Counter-Establishment: The Conservative Ascent to Political Power" (Sidney Blumenthal, 2008): @
* "Barry Goldwater and the Remaking of the American Political Landscape" (edited by Elizabeth Tandy Shermer, 2013): @ 


Thursday, July 2, 1964: Civil Rights Act of 1964

The civil rights bill, called America's commitment to justice and equality for all citizens, completed its Congressional journey Thursday and was signed by President Johnson into the law of the land.
     -- United Press International

     -- Associated Press story: @
     -- New York Times story: @
     -- UPI story, July 3: @

* Complete document (National Archives): @
* Text (www.ourdocuments.gov): @
* President Johnson's remarks (transcript and video; from Miller Center): @
* "Teaching With Documents: The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission" (National Archives): @
* "The Civil Rights Act of 1964: What's in it ... How you can use it to obtain the Rights it guarantees" (Leadership Conference on Civil Rights): @
* "July 2, 1964" (The Civil Rights Documentation Project 1964, The Dirksen Congressional Center): @
* "The Civil Rights Act of 1964" (Google Cultural Institute): @
* Summary (U.S. Commission on Civil Rights)@ 
* Summary (from "Encyclopedia of the United States Congress," 2007): @
* "A Deeper Look at the Politicians Who Passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964" (Smithsonian magazine, 2014): @
* Newsreel: @
* "Major Features of the Civil Rights Act of 1964" (www.congresslink.org; includes overview): @
* Chronology (www.senate.gov; includes links to overview): @
* "Title VII: A Legislative History" (Francis J. Vaas, Boston College Law Review, 1966): @
* "The Civil Rights Act of 1964: The Passage of the Law That Ended Racial Segregation" (Robert D. Loevy, 1997): @
* "When Freedom Would Triumph: The Civil Rights Struggle in Congress, 1954-1968" (Robert Mann, 2007): @
* "An Idea Whose Time Has Come" (Todd S. Purdum, 2014): @
* "The Bill of the Century" (Clay Risen, 2014): @
* "How LBJ Saved the Civil Rights Act" (Michael O'Donnell, The Atlantic, 2014): @ 

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