Thursday, October 28, 1965: Nostra Aetate

Pope Paul and the Vatican ecumenical council Thursday decreed massive changes for the entire structure of Roman Catholicism. They proclaimed a new and unbiased friendship for Jews and other non-Christians. ... The new decrees oblige Catholics to do unprejudiced thinking and dealing with Jews and others outside Christianity after 2,000 years of turbulent history. ... The documents: Insist that the entire Jewish people cannot be charged with Christ's Crucifixion or depicted as accursed by God; pay respect to Islam and other non-Christian religions and reject any kind of discrimination.
     -- Associated Press: @

* "Declaration on the Relation of the Church to Non-Christian Religions: Nostra Aetate" (Pope Paul VI,  1965): @
* Summary from Berkley Center for Religion, Peace & World Affairs: @
* "Nostra Aetate: What Is It?" (Anti-Defamation League): @
* "Guidelines and Suggestions for Implementing the Conciliar Declaration 'Nostra Aetate' " Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews, 1974): @
* "Notes on the correct way to present the Jews and Judaism in preaching and catechesis in the Roman Catholic Church" (Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews): @
* " 'Nostra Aetate,' Forty Years After Vatican II; Present & Future Perspectives" (Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews, 2005): @
* Related resources (Council of Centers on Jewish-Christian Relations): @
* Related resources (JesuitResource.org, Xavier University): @
* "No Religion Is An Island: The Nostra Aetate Dialogues" (1998): @
* "Nostra Aetate: Origins, Promulgation, Impact on Jewish-Catholic Relations" (2007): @ 
* "Stepping Stones to Other Religions: A Christian Theology of Inter-religious Dialogue" (Dermot A. Lane, 2011): @
* "Interreligious Friendship After Nostra Aetate" (2015): @


Friday, October 15, 1965: David Miller burns his draft card

Tuesday, August 31
President Johnson signed into law Tuesday legislation to prohibit the destruction of draft cards. The measure is an outgrowth of student protests against U.S. policy in Viet Nam. The bill, introduced by Rep. L. Mendel Rivers, D-S.C., was rushed through Congress following reports persons had burned or ripped up their draft cards in protest against the Viet Nam War. The new law makes any person found guilty of destroying the wallet-size Selective Service cards subject to a $10,000 fine or a five-year prison term. Alteration and forgery of drafts cards already is a federal offense, punishable by fines of up to $10,000 and jail terms of up to five years.
     -- United Press International; full text of law (Government Printing Office): @

Friday, October 15
At an anti-war rally in New York, David Miller burns his draft card. Miller would be arrested three days later, becoming the first person charged under the new law. (After a lengthy court battle, he would serve 22 months in federal prison starting in June 1968.)
     -- Photo from Corbis Images

* "Memoirs of a Draft-Card Burner" (Miller, 2002): @
* "Draft Card Burner Arrested by F.B.I." (October 18, 1965): @
* "A Serious To-Do About a Silly Law" (Loudon Wainwright, Life magazine, March 4, 1966): @
* "Card Burner Raps Penalty" (Associated Press, March 15, 1966): @
* United States v. Miller (decided October 13, 1966; from Casetext): @
* "Appeal Rejected by High Court" (UPI, February 13, 1967): @
* "Draft Card Burner Nears 'High Noon' " (Washington Post, July 1967): @
* United States v. O'Brien (decided May 27, 1968; from FindLaw): @
* "Reflections of a Draft Card Burner" (Newspaper Enterprise Association, March 1972): @
* "Confronting the War Machine: Draft Resistance During the Vietnam War" (Michael S. Foley, 2003): @
* Entry from "Encyclopedia of American Civil Liberties" (2006): @
* "America's Army: Making the All-Volunteer Force" (Beth L. Bailey, 2009): @ 
* Entry from "Civil Disobedience: An Encyclopedic History of Dissidence in the United States" (2015): @


Thursday, October 14, 1965: Programma 101

Desktop computer or programmable calculator? To this day it's a point of contention about Olivetti's Programma 101 (list price $3,200), introduced at the New York World's Fair. The New York Times split the difference in its reporting the next day: 

Two new entries have gone to the post in the race for the desk-calculator dollar. ... The new Olivetti machine, the Programma 101, is closer in nature to a computer than the new Victor device. Like a computer it can automatically run programs calling for a series of arithmetic operations. It can also store or remember these programs internally as well as externally, and through these programs can make simple logical decisions. ... The Olivetti device displays its calculations on a paper printout. Its numerous functions allow it to be used for both business and scientific purposes.

* "The incredible story of the first PC, from 1965" (www.pingdom.com): @
* Entry from www.curtamania.com: @
* Entry from www.silab.it: @
* Entry from The Old Calculator Web Museum: @
* "The invention of the personal computer: a fascinating story ever told" (website of Pier Giorgio Perotto, Olivetti engineer and architect of the Programma 101; use Google translate): @ 
* Operating manual (ClassicCmp): @
* Advertisement (video from Archivio Nazionale del Cinema d'Impresa): @
* 101 Project: @


Monday, October 11, 1965: Vinland Map

Yale University scholars sliced the frosting off Christopher Columbus' birthday cake Sunday. They've found an ancient map which they say proves that Leif Ericson and other Vikings had explored North America long before Columbus set sail. The map was drawn about 1440 A.D., half a century before Columbus' voyage -- probably by a monk in Basel, Switzerland, using source materials dating back at least to the 13th century, the Yale University Library announced. Greenland is drawn very accurately on the parchment map, and to the west is "Vinland." ... A handwritten notation reads "Discovered by Bjarni and Leif." 
     The map, measuring 11 by 16 inches, will go on display at the Yale library on Tuesday, Columbus Day. Today (October 11) Yale University Press is publishing a book, "The Vinland Map and the Tartar Relation," including reproductions of the map and a manuscript with which it was found.
     -- Associated Press, October 11: @

* "When America Was Called Vinlandia" (Life magazine, October 22, 1965): @
* "Vinland Re-Read" (Paul Saenger, Newberry Library, 1998): @
* "Map Linked to Vikings a Fake, Study Says" (New York Times, February 28, 2000): @
* "Scientists Determine Age of New World Map" (Brookhaven National Laboratory, 2002): @
* "Determination of the Radiocarbon Age of Parchment of the Vinland Map" (Donahue, Olin and Harbottle, Radiocarbon, 2002): @
* "Maps, Myths, and Men: The Story of the Vinland Map" (Kirsten A. Seaver, 2004): @
* "The Viking Deception" ("Nova," PBS, 2005): @ 
* "The Vinland Map -- Some 'Finer Points' of the Debate" (J. Huston McCulloch, Ohio State University, 2005): @
* "Secrets: A Viking Map?" (Smithsonian Channel, 2013): @
* "The Vinland Map" (McCrone Research Institute): @
* "Medieval or Modern?" (Institute for Dynamic Educational Advancement): @ 


Friday, October 8, 1965: LBJ surgery

President Johnson underwent 2 hours 15 minutes of major surgery Friday for removal of his gall bladder and a kidney stone. Three hours later he was reported "doing well."
     -- Associated Press: @ 

Johnson returned to the White House on October 21. The day before, at Bethesda Naval Hospital, he showed the press his surgical scar. The image would be the basis of a famous cartoon by David Levine, with the scar in the shape of Vietnam (The New York Review of Books, May 12, 1966). Mad magazine would take a similar approach in its January 1968 issue: @

* "Statement by the President That He Would Undergo Surgery" (October 5; American Presidency Project): @ 
* October 8 entry from LBJ Presidential Library: @
* " 'Two Operations for the Price of One' " (Life magazine, October 29): @ 
* David Levine's illustrations for The New York Review of Books: @
* www.davidlevineart.com: @


1965: Pillsbury Doughboy

Leo Burnett creative director Rudy Perz was sitting at his kitchen table in the mid-1960s when he dreamed up the idea of a plump, dough figure that would pop out of a tube of refrigerated rolls. Since then, Pillsbury has used Poppin' Fresh in more than 600 commercials for more than 50 of its products.
     -- Summary from Advertising Age: @
     -- Image from Life magazine ad, June 10, 1966

Note: The exact date of when the first ad ran (print or TV) is unclear. In an email, Leo Burnett Worldwide says the agency won the company's refrigerated dough account in March 1965, with the idea for the Doughboy conceived in the fall of 1965, making it more likely that the character did not appear until 1966.

* "The creation of Poppin' Fresh" (General Mills): @
* Entry from "Food and Drink in American History: A 'Full Course' Encyclopedia" (edited by Andrew F. Smith, 2013): @
* Pillsbury Doughboy Collectibles: @
* Early TV ad: @
* Obituaries for Rudolph Perz, who died in 2015: @ (Advertising Age) @ (New York Times) and @ (Washington Post) 
* Top 10 icons of 20th century (Advertising Age): @
* "Memorable advertising icons" (CBS News): @


October 1965: 'Midlife crisis'

The term is coined by psychologist and social analyst Elliot Jaques in his paper "Death and the Mid-Life Crisis," published in the International Journal of Psychoanalysis.

As summarized in The Psychoanalytic Quarterly (1967):

At age thirty-five the individual has reached the summit of life and sees a declining path before him with death at its end. This results in a crisis, stronger in some than others, connected with having to accept the reality of one's death. It is a period of anguish and depression at the anticipated loss of one's life and revives the infantile experience of loss of the good object (mother). Working through the infantile experience again increases one's confidence in being able to love and mourn what has been lost and increases the possibility of enjoying full maturity and old age. If creativity is present, it may take on new depths and shades of feeling. Dante's descent through Purgatory is essentially an expression of the mid-life crisis and its resolution.

* Complete text as reprinted in "Is It Too Late? Key Papers on Psychoanalysis and Ageing" (2006): @
* Entry from Encyclopedia.com (includes links to various summations): @
* Entry from Psychology Today: @
* "Middle Age Couples Are In Comfortable Rut" (Alison Goddard, Women's Medical News Service, 1970): @
* "Passages: Predictable Crises of Adult Life" (Gail Sheehy, 1976): @; author's website: @
* "Men in Midlife Crisis" (Jim Conway, 1997): @
* "The Existential Necessity of Midlife Change" (Carlo Strenger and Arie Ruttenberg, Harvard Business Review, 2008): @
* "Midlife Crisis: A Myth or a Reality in Search of a New Name?" (Vivian Diller, Psychology Today, 2011): @
* "The Myth of the Midlife Crisis" (Anne Tergeson, Wall Street Journal, 2014): @
* "The Intellectual Odyssey of Elliot Jaques: From Alchemy To Science" (Douglas Kirsner, www.psychoanalysis-and-therapy-com): @
* Obituaries for Jaques, who died in 2003: @ (The New York Times) and @ (The Guardian)
* Midlife Club: @
* The World of Dante (University of Virginia): @
* Danteworlds (University of Texas at Austin): @


October 1965: Gatorade

    Gatorade was the result of an offhand question posed in 1965 by assistant football coach Dewayne Douglas to Dr. J. Robert Cade, a professor renal medicine: "Why don't football players ever urinate during a game?" Cade and his team of researchers -- Drs. Alejando de Quesada, Jim Free and Dana Shires -- began investigating dehydration on the sports field -- a topic on which no reliable data existed.
     They soon designed and tested a drink that replaced the electrolytes lost through sweat during intense exercise. With the permission of the coaches, Cade's team was allowed to test the drink on the freshman football team, which unexpectedly beat the upperclassmen in a practice session (Friday, October 1). Ray Graves, Florida's head coach, immediately ordered up a large batch for his varsity squad, and on Saturday, October 2, the Gators upset the fifth-ranked LSU Tigers, 14-7.
     -- Summary from Cade Museum for Creativity + Invention, Gainesville, Florida
     -- Photo of Florida offensive coordinator Ed Kensler and quarterback Steve Spurrier, September 1966; in the early days players drank the mixture from milk cartons provided by the university's Department of Dairy Science. Image from University of Florida.

* "Gators Do It Again, 14-7" (Ocala Star-Banner, October 3, 1965): @
* "The Taste That's Gatorade" (Newspaper Enterprise Association, April 18, 1967): @
* "Gatorade Gives the Gators Their GO!" (All Florida magazine, April 23, 1967): @
* "Guzzling Gatorade" (Red Smith, September 7, 1967): @
* "The Bottle and the Babe" (Sports Illustrated, July 1, 1968): @
* Interview with Robert Cade (1996; University of Florida Digital Collections): @
* "Gatorade: The Idea That Launched an Industry" (Office of Research, University of Florida, 2003): @ 
* "First in Thirst: How Gatorade Turned the Science of Sweat Into a Cultural Phenomenon" (Darren Rovell, 2006): @
* University of Florida historical marker (dedicated 2007): @
* "Raise a Glass to the Father of Energy Drinks" (New York Times, 2007): @
* A Little Glucose, A Little Sodium, One Giant Legend" (The Post, Health Science Center, University of Florida, December 2007-January 2008, page 4): @
* "Dr. Cade Wins the Orange Bowl" (chapter from "It Happened in Florida: Remarkable Events That Shaped Florida History," 2009): @ 
* "Waterlogged: The Serious Problem of Overhydration in Endurance Sports" (Tim Noakes, 2012): @
* "Gator Go: The Story of a Failed Sports Drink" (Home: Living in the Heart of Florida magazine, October 2014): @ 
* "Lightning in a Bottle" (SportsBusiness Daily, 2015): @
* "Innovation Turns 50" (Office of Research, University of Florida): @
* "The Sweat Solution" (ESPN Films, 2015): @

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