The term was coined by two scientists presenting a paper at the Symposium on Psychophysiological Aspects of Spaceflight, held in May 1960 at Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. The original term, combining the words CYBernetic and ORGanism, refers to mechanical or electronic devices aiding or controlling the human body's processes as a way for people to better survive in space. (In current usage, someone with a pacemaker might be considered a cyborg).
* The original paper: @
* Cyborg website: @
* Radio segment on word's origins (go to "Happy Birthday Cyborg"): @
* "50 Posts About Cyborgs": @
* Course syllabus for "Cyborg Society" at the University of California at Santa Cruz: @